Archive for the ‘Egypt’ Category

Green Environment Consultants – About Us

February 17, 2011
GREEN is a professional partnership providing diverse specialised consulting and management services in environmentand sustainable development. Its clientele include governments,local and regional authorities, donor agencies, international
organizations, civil and non-governmental bodies, multi-national
corporations and the business/private sector community.
GREEN, initially formed by the grouping of a number of firms and consulting houses, and today comprising several specialised entities, brings together a team of experts and professionals that have been working together throughout the world for over
twenty years with in-depth expertise in all aspects related to environment and sustainable development. GREEN’s experts, consultants and full-time staff number more than three hundred people, utilizing state-of-the-art methodologies, technologies and equipment and adapting them to local needs, conditions and
resources wherever they work. The diversity and experience of GREEN and its staff has enabled it to act as a channel of technology, expertise and solutions between various countries and cultures, allowing it to positively and effectively contribute
to development.
GREEN is closely affiliated with several reputable companies and firms in most regions of the world that together offer cuttingedge services, technologies and solutions. In addition, GREEN is closely linked to the academic and research community, as well as several universities around the globe, expanding its valuable
research and development resources. Coupled with GREEN’s well-equipped mobile facilities, this adds up to enable GREEN to provide its clientele with the optimum solutions, both technically and financially, efficiently and effectively, on-time anywhere around the globe.


This piece is taken from the website of the Green Environment Consultants.

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Association for the Protection of the Environment (A.P.E) – About Us

February 17, 2011

APE is a non-government organization. Established in 1984 to improve the lives of garbage collectors, it is run by a 9 member board of trustees, a staff of over 50 and scores of volunteers drawn from various fields of special interest.

Today about 25,000 people live in the Mokattam (having grown from a population of 8,000 in the early 1980s) and almost all of them live off, or are involved in, garbage activities.

It is estimated that more than 40% of Cairo’s garbage is not collected formally. The garbage collectors- the zabbaleen- handle this part of the garbage produced by the 19 million inhabitants of Cairo at no cost to the city authorities.

Specifically this means that the zabbaleen collect about 7,000 tons of garbage every day and up to 90 per cent of that waste is recycled by them directly.

Since no one pays them to collect the garbage, the zabbaleen make their living from recycling what they collect. This is why the garbage industry at the Mokattam is the most efficient recycling industry in the world.  At a price.

Most zabbaleen children have not had any access to formal education. Schools, until relatively recently, were not a feature of the garbage settlements and children from an early age work with their parents either sorting waste or helping on the collection routes.

In 1997 it was estimated that of the youngsters aged 12 to 14, 66 per cent of boys and 59 per cent of girls were working.

APE aim to make a real business out of the zabbaleen work by emphasis that recycling is an important industry and that development and environmental preservation are not incompatible.

One of the APE initiatives has been the construction of a centre for workshops producing patchwork and recycled paper products. Starting by collecting rags from the textile mills and factories, the centre today teaches more than 250 young women how to sort, design, cut, sew,  weave, iron and recycle these fabrics into patchwork quilts, bedspreads, rugs, bags and other marketable items. See more under APE activities.


This piece is taken from the website of the Association for the Protection of the Environment (A.P.E).

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Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Wadi El Rayan Protected Area Project

February 13, 2011

The Wadi El Rayan Protected Area Project has been implemented during the period February 1998 – June 2001, and it has bee extended until end of October  2003. The objective of the project was to support the management of WRPA, thus contributing to the enhancement of Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs (MSEA) – Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) capabilities to put into practice nature conservation actions on a sustainable basis.

The project has substantially achieved its objectives, and has been successful in firmly establishing a well managed protected area. However, to ensure further sustainability to the results achieved, and to address new emerging priorities, it is  a second phase starting June 2004,  is currently under implementation.

The project is pursuing the general aim of “enhancing EEAA capabilities to plan and implement nature conservation on a sustainable basis, thus contributing to the preservation and protection of the biotic communities of plants and animals, as well as of the other natural features, of a portion of the Egyptian Western Desert”

More specifically, the project is pursuing the following objectives:

1. Strengthen the capacity of the PAMU to manage and conserve the WRPA ecosystem in accordance with internationally recognized guidelines and strategies related to the protection and sustainable management of natural resources and the approved management plan for the protected area. 

2. Strengthen the PAMU’s collaborative management with local stakeholders by supporting a participatory approach in the management of the PA as envisaged in the Management Planning System for Protected Areas used by NCS.

3. Promote the development of ecotourism based on the natural assets of WRPA in accordance with the management plan and the guidelines set out in the Investment Plan developed during the first phase of the project.

4. Promote the WRPA as a leading site for environmental education and communication through development of field-based activities, which address biodiversity conservation and sustainable development issues and enhance public support for the protection of the area (in accordance with the management plan).

5. Strengthen the integration of the recreational and educational function of Wadi El Rayan and Medinet Madi to contribute to the broader development of sustainable tourism in the Fayoum district.

6. Develop and implement a site-specific plan for the conservation of the Wadi Hitan area of WRPA as a world heritage site, ensuring the long-term participation of local stakeholders and the private sector in the sound and collaborative management of the site.

7. Enhance the management capacity of the environmental office (EMU) in the Fayoum Governorate to enable it to fulfill its environmental protection function in support of WRPA effectively

Based on the project’s seven specific objectives, the following seven key outputs are envisaged each arising from a series of targeted activities:

  • Output 1. The PAMU is strengthened through the enhancement of its administrative and technical capacities and increased financial sustainability.
  • Output 2. Key stakeholders are involved in the collaborative management of the protected area.
  • Output 3. The ecotourism sector linked to the PA is developed and diversified.
  • Output 4. Wadi El Rayan becomes a leading site for environmental education.
  • Output 5. The recreational and educational functions of Wadi El Rayan and Medinet Madi are integrated.
  • Output 6. The Wadi Hitan area of the WRPA is effectively managed as a world heritage site.
  • Output 7. The enhancement of the management capacity of the EMU office in the Fayoum Governorate.

This piece is taken from the website of the Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

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Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Siwa Environmental Amelioration Project

February 13, 2011

The Siwa Environmental Amelioration Project (SEAP) has been implemented during the period May 1998 – May 2001, and it has subsequently extended, closing formally on October 2003. The objective of the project was to contribute to the economic development and environmental amelioration of Siwa by supporting community activities aimed at the sustainable development and at the conservation of natural resources. The working methodology has been based on participatory approach, seeking the full involvement of the local community, while respecting the Siwan tradition and culture, including the traditional power, and the administrative formal authorities in place. The project has substantially achieved its objectives. However, to ensure further sustainability to the results achieved and to widening its benefit to the area, a second phase has been financed. 

The architecture of SEAP-Phase II, implemented under the umbrella of the Egyptian Italian Environmental Cooperation Program-Phase II/ EIECP, is based on four components reflecting the proposed widening of the project’s scope. These components are: Development of Sustainable Agriculture; Strengthening the Siwa Community Development Environment Conservation  (SCDEC / Siwa Association); Strengthening the Protected Area; and Solid Waste Management.

The project is pursuing the following general objective: “to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of natural and cultural resources in the Siwa region”. 

The followings are the specific development objectives of the four Project components:

The expected outputs/results are the followings:

Development  of sustainable agriculture 

Based on the sub-component’s six specific objectives, nine key outputs have been tentatively identified, each arising from a series of targeted activities.

Output 1. The production technologies introduced in respect to soil, water and crop management have been refined through the cropping, monitoring and follow-up of 188 plots (equivalent to 202 fed.) completed within the 3 years Project period, and 22 plots (22 fed) planned for the extension period, for a total of 210 plots covering 224 fed. With the establishment of a new area of 32 fed. put under adaptive research Modules, the total area cropped and monitored results of 256 fed..  

Output 2. Organic farming technology has been developed and at the end of the conversion period the harvests have been certified as organic over an area of 10 fed. Less known crops have been tested and monitored over an area of 20 fed. for their introduction in the cropping patterns.

Output 3. The changes of soil properties across the years have been monitored through 600 soil samples. The water management has been monitored through installation of about 230 piezometrs, 50 V-Notch and measurements taken from the micro irrigation system. Landscape changes have been monitored through photo-documentation. 

Output 4. The crop production has been evaluated in term of suitability of the crops in the prevailing conditions in term of some growth parameters. The development of crops in different modules (individual and intercropped) has been monitored. The cropping patterns in term of rotation/soil fertility/pest, diseases and weeds control have been assessed.

Output 5. The economics of various cropping patterns have been assessed through financial analysis of inputs/outputs ratio, taking into account marketing opportunities and prices throughout the year. These analyses have been compared with the traditional farming system. The socio-economic impact of the new cropping patterns/farming systems on family income and the changes likely taking place on family labour force and livelihood, market labour force, etc. has been assessed.  

Output 6. Income generating initiatives linked to sustainable agriculture have been developed: a Livestock Demonstration Farm for sheep and goat has been established, which also provides balanced rations and other services to local market; 100 sheep/goats and 40 buffalo/cows have been distributed to participating farmers, partly women; a nursery and 10 poles have been established for fish farming.  The existing animals from the first phase will be followed-up and monitored.  

Output 7. Women beneficiaries have been trained and provided with 10 spinning wheels to introduce the utilization of the wool by processing it into yarns and then into carpets. Equipment to better utilize the milk produced from buffalo, cows and goats for processing to products such as yogurt, cheese, and butter for household consumption and possibly for marketing has been distributed to 10 trained women. 

Output 8. The level of knowledge of local community members and Project staff, young generations and women has been enhanced through training done in the field, homes and demonstration farms giving high respect to local traditions and customary habits. The training has covered various Project activities. The participatory approach adopted has facilitated the effectiveness of the advices and recommendations given to beneficiaries and the transfer of his findings and problems to the specialists. 

Output 9. Collaborative agreements with specialized Institutions/Organizations have been signed and implemented. The specific scientific support has been provided to the Project, while the Institutions have been benefited from the fieldwork implemented with the participating community. Thus the findings are based on solid basis, more reliable and reflecting the prevailing conditions of the Siwa region. Siwan community has been provided with a well-equipped Laboratory, able to respond in time and reliably to all the needed information required for an effective sustainable management of natural resources.

Strengthening the SCDEC/Siwan Association

Based on the sub-component’s five specific objectives, five key outputs have been tentatively identified, each arising from a series of targeted activities.

Output 1. SCDEC effectively manages and monitors the local credit scheme that supports socio-economic and environmental sustainable development initiatives. 

Output 2. Establishment of a well-functioning and self-sustaining micro-crediting mechanism managed by SCDEC

Output 3. The Window service has been established, delivering technical information, technical booklets and preparing feasibility studies.  There is also broad awareness within the community about the existence and the opportunities offered by the micro-crediting mechanism and the window for technical assistance.

Output 4.  Agro-industrial processing units (on its own or in partnership with the private sector) are established.  Marketing and sales opportunities for the Siwan community are enhanced in a coordinated manner.

Output 5. More social equity and empowerment of Siwan women and marginalized groups are pursued through their access to micro-crediting scheme. Women and marginalized groups become important actors, within Siwan association framework structure, of initiatives promoted by NGOs in cultural heritage preservation, handicraft production and ecotourism.

Strengthening Siwa – Protected Area

Output 1. Institutional capacity for field conservation enabled through legal, human resources and infrastructure development

Output 2. Collaborative management of the protected area is operational based on the    adaptive, equitable and sustainable use of biodiversity resources

Output 3. Monitoring and evaluation of biodiversity resources, their utilization and management has been tested, and a system is operational 

Output 4. Information Education Communication (IEC) efforts are building local and national constituencies for biodiversity conservation

Output 5. Ecotourism is managed to demonstrate innovative, environmentally-compatible, economic activities meeting sustainable livelihood needs 

Output 6. An overall biodiversity strategy and action plan for the Siwa region is developed and biodiversity conservation is firmly inscribed on the local development agenda

Output 7. The management capacity of the Environmental Management Unit of the Matrouh Governorate is enhanced


Solid Waste Management 

In order to achieve the objectives of the Project Task, the following outputs/results will be produced:

Output A-1:  An updated solid waste related database that will include general attributes of the Siwa Oasis and the solid waste specific attributes. It will also include a map of Siwa showing available routes and their traffic capacity, population concentration and growth trends, and the location of commercial and industrial activities.  

Output B-1: An executive, ready-for-implementation plan for the establishment of a comprehensive and sustainable SWM scheme for the entire Siwa Oasis. 

Output B-2: An improved and implemented SWM scheme. Depending on the outcome of B-1, this new scheme will improve the existing collection system and making it more comprehensive. Collection systems might include household and commercial waste containers, collection vehicles and equipment upgrade, and the organization and equipping of collection workers, (such as the provision of protective clothing). The scheme might also include the addition of temporary waste storage and transfer points, equipment for waste transfer, and the procedures for operating and maintaining these facilities and equipment. Furthermore, the SWM scheme will improve the operation of the existing dumpsite located 10 km north of the town of Siwa  (on Marsa Matrouh road).  

Output C-1:  A framework for an Operations Unit (OU), which will assume the responsibility of planning, managing and monitoring the execution of the SWM scheme. On the basis of this framework, the following will be set: job descriptions, training needs assessments, and work force development plans.

Output C-2: Operating the OU after being supported with qualified staff and workers. 

Output D-1: A set of documents and reports as a part of a mechanism that will assure the sustainability and functionality of the Siwa SWM Project. These documents will also emphasize the continuous updating of the data related to solid waste and the continuous measurement of the outputs of the Project task. 

Output D-2:  Bi-annual follow-up reports addressing the outputs of the task implementation and monitoring the sustainability of the operations. 

Moreover, two Italian NGOs (Ricerca & Cooperazione and COSPE) will integrate, in autonomous administrative structured organization, the activities undertaken by SEAP in the fields of cultural heritage, hand-crafts and ecotourism, aiming respectively to rehabilitate the local constructions, to revive the local traditions and to promote sustainable tourism, stimulating the overall development of income generating activities. A close coordination and collaboration with the NGOs will thus help the Project to enhance its level of effectiveness in addressing social development.

This piece is taken from the website of the Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

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Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Legal and Institutional Framework Project

February 13, 2011

The Legal and Institutional Framework Project (LIFP)is a component of Phase II of the Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP). The program aims at contributing “to the protection of Egypt’s natural and cultural resources”. The Phase II of EIECP will have a life span of three years, starting from the 1st June 2004.

The general objective of the Legal and Institutional Framework Project is addressing weaknesses and inconsistencies of some specific areas of the environmental legislation and its implementation, and to strengthen the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs / Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency’s capability to cope with legal environmental issues, its institutional role with respect to the other public institutions, and therefore its capability to impose environmental considerations as cross-sector issues. 

The Project pursues the following specific objectives, related to the priority thematic areas identified during the preparation of both the Program and the Project:

Solid Waste Management: To redraft solid waste management legislation with a view of having harmonized and integrated legislation, matching with the recent developments.
Protected Areas: To improve the effectiveness of legislation on protected areas.
Marine Environment: To enhance Egyptian legislation for the protection of marine environment, through a more effective implementation of international and regional conventions as well as national legislation.  
Capacity Building: To strengthen the legislative and regulatory role of MSEA/ EEAA through building the legal capacity of EEAA, and to educate and train judicial officers, prosecutors and judges on legal environmental issues, as well as EEAA, Governorates and field officers.

The expected outputs are the followings:

Solid Waste Management

  1. New solid waste management regime (or parts of it) drafted.
  2. Inconsistencies, overlapping and contradictions between existing SWM legislation identified and proposed for elimination.  
  3. Internationally accepted environmental standards for the construction and operation of solid waste   management facilities compiled and prepared. 
  4. Quality and environmental standards to be followed by solid waste management private entities established (e.g. standards to be specified in the concession from the public authority to the private entity in order to ensure that the service is managed properly).
  5. Roles and responsibilities of the entities involved in solid waste management (EEAA, decentralized offices, NGOs, private sector), with regard to the different phases of policy, planning, regulation, monitoring  and enforcement with specific attention to the distinction between the entities responsible for operations and the entities responsible for regulation and control, well defined.
  6. Incentive measures for waste reduction, recycling and composting proposed.

Protected Areas

  1. A report assessing the state of the art of compliance with Law n. 102 of 1983 in selected protected areas prepared.
  2. Guidelines for the correct implementation of Laws, Executive Regulations and Decrees directly or indirectly relevant to protected areas elaborated.
  3. Reform of existing licensing system for activities within protected areas and an adapted system proposed.
  4. Rules providing for delimitation of strictly protected zones, with respect to areas where activities compatible with the environment can be allowed, elaborated.
  5. Rules disciplining the exercise of allowed activities within protected areas, including the use of natural resources, elaborated.
  6. A report clarifying the relationship between central and local EEAA offices (with a view to decentralizing   responsibilities, also with respect to the management of local funds coming from entrance fees and fines), and between EEAA and other Ministries and organizations (especially with reference to licenses and controls) prepared.

Note  All the above results will be obtained with respect to the selected protected areas (see above Objectives).  These would include Wadi El Rayan and at least another protected area falling under EIECP.  The findings and outputs will then be generalized to the best possible extent to the Egyptian protected area network.

Marine Environment

  1. International conventions on marine environment of interest for Egypt, distinguishing among those that  have already been signed or ratified, and those, whose adoption is suggested, collected.
  2. Guidelines for appropriate implementation of the International Conventions, to which Egypt is party, drafted.
  3. Legislative and regulatory means for implementation of international conventions concerning marine environment determined.
  4. Real cases of environmental damages affecting the marine environment addressed and settled (to the possible   extent, depending on judicial system times) through application of international conventions.

Capacity Building 

  1. EEAA Legal Affairs Department legislative and regulatory role strengthened.
  2. Legal Affairs Department negotiation skills, especially concerning compensation for environmental damages, namely for the marine environment, enhanced.
  3. Training programs prepared and implemented for EEAA relevant departments, judicial officers, prosecutors,  judges, governorates’ officers. This will focus on
    1. solid waste management, 
    2. protected areas, and
    3. marine environment.

The targets will be achieved through implementation of the activities as described in the Project document.

Legal Training Course for Specialized Environmental Judges

“Activation of the Implementation of the Egyptian Environmental Legislation”

Cairo, 10th – 12th October 2009

The Legal and Institutional Framework Project (LIFP) organized a three days Training Course for environmental judges which took place in the premises of Cairo House from the 10th to the 12th of October 2009. It concerned the legal aspects of the environmental legislation and aimed at building specific capacities related to the implementation of the Egyptian environmental legislation, in particular Law No. 4 of 1994 as amended in 2009.

The Training Course was the last one of a turn of events organized by the LIFP Project in the sector of Legal Capacity Building: during its lifespan, more than 15 training courses were held and quite thousand environmental judges and prosecutors were trained. The Training Course on subject was attended by more than 40 Egyptian environmental judges and it was focused on several environmental topics from both the international and the national perspectives.

The issues addressed varied from the legal regimes deriving from international environmental conventions (i.e. the Basel Convention and the Kyoto Protocol) to the main features of the Environmental Law No. 4 of 1994, the legal aspects of the management of hazardous waste, the procedures of the environmental impact system, the rules on environmental quality and air pollution and the legal regime of protected areas.


The final ceremonial session of the Training Course was attended by the Director of Development Cooperation Office of the Italian Embassy Dr. Ginevra Letizia, the National Manager of LIFP Gen. Ahmed El Anwer, the International Co-manager and Senior Technical Advisor of LIFP Prof. Sergio Marchisio, the UNDP Officer Mrs. Amany Nakhla, the PCU Coordinator Dr. Luca Montaccini and other members of the PMU of LIFP. It reaffirmed the importance of the activities of Capacity Building within the LIFP Project and of the common purposes and perspectives of the bilateral cooperation program between Italy and Egypt.

The Egyptian Ministers for Environmental Affairs, Maged George, and of Justice, Mamdouh Moheiddin Marei, underlined on several occasions the importance of LIFP Project in the field of environmental protection and legal capacity building. Minister George reaffirmed its deep appraisal for LIFP during the bilateral meeting with the Italian Minister for the Environment, Stefania Prestigiacomo, held in 2009 during the G8 Environment Summit of Siracusa.

Workshop “LIFP – Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives” –

Rome, 3rd July 2009

Programme of the workshop

An  international Workshop on LIFP activities, entitled Lessons Learned and Future Perspectives, was held on 3rd July 2009 in Rome. It was attended by Egyptian and Italian experts, and by some representatives of Italian Institutions, such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry for Environment, the Institute for International Legal Studies and the National Research Council. The Workshop aimed at the promotion of the achievements of LIFP during its lifespan (2006-2009) and at the assessment of its future perspectives in the framework of a new partnership between Egypt and Italy.

Eng. Guido Benevento, Italian Cooperation Advisor – Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs The Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program Powerpoint Presentation
Gen. Ahmed El Anwer, LIFP National Manager The Role of LIFP in the Protection of Egyptian Environment and its Main Achievements from 2006 until 2009 Powerpoint Presentation
Prof. Sergio Marchisio, LIFP International Co-Manager and Senior Technical Advisor The Core Role of LIFP in the Framework of Egyptian-Italian Cooperation: Concepts and Achievements Powerpoint Presentation
Mrs. Amany Nakhla, UNDP Program Officer The Role of UNDP in supporting the Egyptian-Italian Partnership and the Implementation of LIFP Activities Powerpoint Presentation
Mr. Tarek Salah, LIFP Senior Legal Officer The Egyptian System of Protected Areas Powerpoint Presentation
Dr. Ihab Tarek, LIFP National Co-Manager Assistant The Role of LIFP to Support and Develop the Judicial System: the Institution of Environmental Judges in Egyptian Courts Powerpoint Presentation 1

Powerpoint Presentation 2

Dr. Lorenzo Schiano di Pepe, LIFP Marine Environment International Consultant The Protection of Marine Environment in the Egyptian Legislation Powerpoint Presentation
Dr. Ornella Ferrajolo, IILS Researcher Capacity Building for Promoting Compliance with Environmental Law: the IILS Experience Paper


This piece is taken from the website of the Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

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Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Gabal Elba Protected Area

February 13, 2011

Gabal Elba Protected Area project  (hereinafter referred as GEPA) is a component of Phase II of the Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

Phase II of the EIECP has been prepared to follow-up and build on the successes of Phase I. It includes several components to assist the Nature Conservation Sector of EEAA: the Capacity Building and Institutional Support to NCS (NCSP), that seeks to build technical capacities at the central level, while providing overall technical backstopping to the protected area projects of Gabal ElbaWadi El Rayan and Siwa. Thus, the GEPA project has been designed as part of a fully integrated Protected Area component of the EIECP.

The project is pursuing the general aim of “enhancing EEAA capabilities to plan and implement nature conservation on a sustainable basis, thus contributing to the preservation and protection of biotic communities of plants and animals, as well as of the other natural features, of a portion of the Egyptian Western desert”.

More specifically the project is pursuing the following objectives:

1. Prepare the first Management Plan for the ongoing management of GEPA in accordance with the Management Planning System for protected areas.

2. Strengthen the capacity of the PAMU to manage GEPA in accordance with its Management Plan through the provision of technical assistance, staff and equipment.

3. Prepare a funding plan for GEPA aimed at attracting  development funding  for the protected area. The plan must outline the major  interventions and actions   needed for the firm establishment and management  of the Elba National Park as a major component of the Egyptian PA system

4. Identify possible sources of funding for implementing the  funding plan

5. Collate all existing scientific data on GEPA and collect the additional data essential for drawing up meaningful  management and funding plans.

6. Develop a local environmental awareness program and initiate local development projects based on the natural resource base

7. Conclude collaborative agreements with key agencies  operating in the PA.

8. Prepare an action plan aimed at initiating co-operation with Wadi Allaqi PA with a view to holding discussions with Sudan on a trans-boundary effort to preserve the whole ecosystem.

Based on the project’s objectives, eight key outputs have been identified, each arising from a series of targeted activities.

Output 1. The first Management Plan for GEPA in accordance with the Management Planning System for protected areas is prepare

Output 2. The capacity of the PAMU to manage GEPA in accordance with its Management Plan is strengthened

Output 3. A funding plan for GEPA, aimed at attracting national or international development funding for the protected area, is prepared, outlining the major interventions and actions needed for the firm establishment and management of the GEPA as a major component of the Egyptian PA System

Output 4. Possible sources of funding for implementing the funding plan are identified

Output 5. All existing scientific data on GEPA is collated and additional data essential for drawing up a meaningful management and funding plans is collected.

Output 6. Local environmental awareness is strengthened and local natural resource based development projects are initiated

Output 7 Collaboration agreements are concluded with all key agencies working in the area.

Output 8. An action plan initiating co-operation with Wadi Allaqi PA with a view to holding discussions with Sudan on a possible a trans-boundary effort to preserve the whole ecosystem is implemented.

This piece is taken from the website of the Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

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Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Water Resources Decision Support System

February 13, 2011

The Decision Support System Project (DSSP) has been implemented during the period March 1998 to August 2001. The project activities have been extended up to October 2003.

The original objectives of the project were:

(i)      Proposing a methodology for the integration of environmental and socio-economic aspects in the water resources planning exercise; 

(ii)    Developing a computer-based tool that multiplies the Decision-Makers (DMs) capacity of analysis and evaluation, stimulating the adoption of a wider and more integrated perspective in the planning process, as well as fostering the multi-actors dialogue

(iii)     Contributing to the capacity-building of the researchers and DMs of the concerned institutions. In particular, these institutions are: the National Water Research Center (NWRC) as the implementing agency through its Strategic Research Unit (SRU); the EEAA (Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency) and the Planning Sector of the Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI-PS).

The project has to a reasonable extent achieved its objectives. However, to fully capitalize the efforts and resources spent, a second phase of three years duration is currently under implementation.  

In specific, it is expected that the project in Phase II will:

  1. Consolidate the results achieved and ensure the sustainability of the main  activities undertaken, 

  2. Build upon the experience and lessons learned in implementing the various project activities.

The objectives of Phase II of the project could be summarized as follows:

Overall Objective

To draw water resources policies and plans that are consistent with sustainability ethic and aim at quality of life improvement, thus avoiding decisions which might have adverse impact on them. 

Specific Objectives

  • To refine and disseminate the methodology developed for the environmental and socio-economic aspects in the analysis of WR scenarios and development measures;
  • To enhance the capacity of the computer-based tool developed (DSS) to implement the above methodology;
  • To contribute to the capacity building of high level technical staff of the NWRC/SRU, the MWRI-PS, and the EEAA;
  • To analyze the effects linked to the adoption of a particular national plan (the National Water Resources Plan) for utilization of water resources; 
  • To assess the effectiveness of the DSS by conducting case-study (ies).

This piece is taken from the website of the  Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

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Egyptian – Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Cultural Heritage Project

February 13, 2011

The project, titled: “Enhancement of the organisation and capabilities to preserve Cultural Heritage Assets of Egypt”, started on July 2000 with the purpose of:

 a) Creating an integrated system to support the Egyptian public administration in its efforts to prevent environmental risks and to develop, with a socio-economic approach, the cultural resources of the country.

b) Developing an information model to support analysis and all proposals aimed at reducing the environmental negative impact on the state of preservation the Egyptian archaeological sites. After the collection and analyses of all available data, the information model (referred to at point b) was developed and tested at the North Saqqara site (chosen by the SCA) leading to the drawing up of “North Saqqara site Risk Map“. The project  ended on October 2003.

The project has been so successful that the Egyptian Government has requested to carry on with it, by establishing a technical office entrusted with the management of the archaeological sites exposed to environmental stress. Management of these sites implies interventions and projects, aimed at limiting environmental decay and promoting the development of these areas in their socio-economic context.

Overall objectives of the new project

The project “Institutional support to SCA for environmental monitoring and management of cultural heritage sites: applications to Fayoum oasis and North Saqqara Necropolis” is strengthening the already established  “Technical Office for the Institutional Support to SCA for the Environmental Monitoring and Management of Cultural Heritage Sites (TOEMMAS)”.

In particular, main concern of this office is:

  • To investigate the archaeological sites under environmental stress;
  • To study deterioration aspects caused by the changes of environmental conditions;
  • To analyze hypothesis of socio-economic development in the surrounding areas of the archaeological sites;
  • To reinforce the institutional capacity of the SCA, including preparation of standards and guidelines in the relevant fields, in close collaboration with the Ministry of Environment / EEAA and other concerned institutions;
  • To outline the conservation and management activities to be carried out to optimize the existing resources, with the goal to protect and to develop the Sites.

 Specific objectives

  1. Preparation of a plan for the Management of Saqqara site, with special attention to the conservation of the monuments under environmental stress and to the socio-economic development of the site areas, developed on the grounds of the inner aspects and problems, and  points of view of the archaeological site management expertise. In this context, and on the basis of the results achieved from the studies carried out during the expiring project, it is considered convenient to implement a practical application in Saqqara site.
  2. Preparation of a Risk Map for Fayoum oasis, a management plan for Medinet Madi sites, and to valorize the regional resources of Fayoum Oasis.

A preliminary investigation will be carried out, with special attention to the preservation and the management of Medinet Madi, to be linked with the Protected Area of Wadi El Rayan, and other valuable archaeological sites. The investigation will also cover the landscape, handcraft and natural resources of the area, taking into account all the matters related to archaeological sites, considered under their social and environmental contexts. In consideration of the richness of environmental and cultural elements existing in the Fayoum Oasis, it is deemed necessary to carry out in Fayoum Oasis a practical application relevant to sites aspects and problems and referred to the territorial context. Here, besides the archaeological sites as Medinet Madi, exist significant cultural resources that have to be protected and valorised (handcraft, natural, agricultural aspects, etc.).

The proposal referred to the site will concern also the already established Protected Area of Wadi El Rayan, by which to plan out the necessary integration as visit excursions.

Expected results

  • a) To set up management of the sites, giving special consideration to the sites of Saqqara and Medinet Madi, in Fayoum.

    b) To entrust qualified staff with the management of the sites.

    c) To rationally organize tourist flows, in line with the state of preservation of the structures of the monuments exposed to environmental stress.

    d) To start up an organic plan of intervention for routine and extra-ordinary maintenance, in order to limit environmental decay.

    e) To plan consolidated management of the scientific research in the sites.

    f) To promote socio-economic development in the sampled areas.


  • To carry on with the investigations in Saqqara, involving in the analysis a larger number of structures.
  • To draw up a risk map for the Fayoum oasis.
  • To link the Protected Area of Wadi Rayan (Fayoum) with the ancient town of Medinet Madi.
  • To program the management of the sample sites (Saqqara, Fayoum – Medinet Madi).
  • To carry out a feasibility study to establish visitors’ centres in the archaeological sites.
  • To carry out a feasibility study to set up tour systems in the archaeological areas, supported by new technologies.
  • To carry out a feasibility study to transform the archaeological storehouses into site museums.
  • To carry out a feasibility study to link up Memphis necropolis.
  • To carry on and extend instrumental monitoring in Saqqara.
  • To carry on with investigations on the state of preservation of the Saqqara tombs
  • To intervene on the field to distribute tourist flows and minimize the deterioration of monuments due to anthropic pressure.
  • To train Egyptian homologues in the fields of management and C.A.D., computer graphics and archaeological parks planning.


 The Project is basically a program of Institutional Building (with operational results as well, such as extended monitoring stations, starting up of archeoguides in Saqqara, linking of the ancient town of Medinet Madi to the Wadi el Rayan Protected Area, a risk map for El Fayoum etc.).

Therefore first beneficiaries are the institutions responsible for the preservation of the cultural heritage of the country: S.C.A. (Supreme Council of Antiquities) and, indirectly, EEAA (Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency).

Other beneficiaries are Egypt and the population living in and around Saqqara and Fayoum Oasis. In fact the Project is drawing new attention to Egypt and lead to an increase of the number of visitors and their period of stay, while promoting the socio-economic development of the concerned areas.

Estimated Time to carry out the project: two years.  Starting presumably in June 2004 

Estimated cost of intervention: Euro 4, 245,667

This piece is taken from the website of the Egyptian – Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

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Egyptian – Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Capacity Building and Institutional Support for the Nature Conservation Sector (NCS)

February 13, 2011

Project overview


The “Capacity Building and Institutional Support to the Nature Conservation Sector of the MSEA/EEAA Project (referred to as NCSCB / Nature Conservation Sector Capacity Building Project) is one of the components of the Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Phase II. This project has been designed as part of a fully integrated Protected Area component of the EIECP, which includes also three other projects to support the management of the Wadi el Rayan, Siwa and Elba Protected Areas respectively.

The Nature Conservation Sector is part of the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, and is the government body responsible for nature conservation in Egypt. The NCS is entrusted with overseeing compliance of habitat and species protection legislation and commitments to international conventions for the conservation of nature. Its mandate is “to protect, manage and develop Egypt’s wild resources on behalf of its people, by conserving the nation’s biological diversity, preserving representative samples of the country’s natural landscape, and ensuring that the management and use of all wild resources are sustainable and economically productive”. One of the principal tasks of the NCS is the management of the National Protected Area Network which, as of January 2007, is composed of 27 Protected Areas.


The NCSCB project aims at building the capacity of this institution at the central level, while providing overall technical backstopping to the three other projects operating at the field level. The project focuses on the core business of the NCS by ensuring that the institutional capacity of the department is progressively enhanced and that the performance of its staff is continuously upgraded. Besides contributing to the strengthening of Nature Conservation Sector in terms of human, financial and physical resources, the project is helping develop NCS as the main actor promoting the wise use of natural resources in the country.


The project is directly implemented by EEAA/NCS, with Technical Assistance from IUCN- The World Conservation Union. This organization, through its Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation (based in Malaga, Spain), is providing technical and managerial support with a team of long and short-term international experts.

Project objectives

In line with the general objectives and strategic approach of the EIECP, the project is pursuing the following objectives:

As overall objective:

To enhance EEAA capacity to plan and implement nature conservation a sustainable basis, thus contributing to the preservation and protection of the biotic communities of plants and animals, as well as other natural features constituting Egypt’s natural and biodiversity assets.

As specific objectives:

1. Support the NCS in implementing its mandate to establish and manage a representative national system of PAs, by enhancing its technical capacity in the following key areas: (i) PA planning, (ii) EIA and licensing of economic activities, (iii) monitoring, evaluation and reporting, (iv) public relations and marketing.

2. Provide comprehensive backstopping to the three protected areas supported by the EIECP (Wadi El Rayan, Gabal Elba and Siwa), as demonstration sites for testing and implementing innovative procedures aiming at the effective decentralisation of NCS management functions. 

3. Capitalize on site-specific field activities and lessons learnt in the three protected areas (Wadi El Rayan, Gabal Elba and Siwa) as well as other pertinent lessons both nationally and internationally, so as to enhance NCS capacity to replicate positive outcomes throughout the national network of protected areas, formulate general policy and report to the key international conventions to which Egypt is a party.


Based on the project’s objectives, five key outputs have been identified, each arising from a series of targeted activities.

 1. The institutional and technical capacities of the NCS are strengthened

 2. The EIA, licensing and legal capacities of the NCS are enhanced.

 3. Pilot management plans are developed and standardized and a national system plan for protected areas is formulated 

 4. A central system of monitoring, evaluation and reporting is established

 5. Effective marketing and public relations activities are promoting the NCS as the leading institution supporting biodiversity conservation in Egypt

This piece is taken from the website of the Egyptian – Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

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Egyptian – Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP) – Overview

February 13, 2011

Phase II of the Program aims at the continuation of the cooperation between the Governments of the Italian Republic (GOI) and the Arab Republic of Egypt (GOE) in the field of environment, established with Phase I that ended on 2003. 

Phase II  is providing an umbrella support to Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs (MSEA) / EEAA in a collaborative manner with its partner institutions to:

  • Implement Projects for the conservation of natural resources and the protection of the environment, which is a key policy objective of MSEA/EEAA.
  • Enhance the co-operation between key stakeholders in addressing environmental needs in a coordinated and decentralized approach. Again, this is a policy objective of   MSEA/EEAA.
  • Attain community participation and mobilization in all relevant activities, with emphasis on the gender-differentiated roles and impact in natural resource management. This will definitively help MSEA/EEAA in achieving a strategic goal.

The components of the Program are:

  1. A systemic approach to Solid Waste Management in Rural Governorates of Egypt – Pilot development of a comprehensive management scheme for El Minyia Governorate (SWMM)
  2. Capacity Building and Institutional Support to Nature Conservation Sector of the MSEA/EEAA (NCS)
  3. Decision Support System for Water Resources Planning based on Environmental Balance (DSS), second phase
  4. Gabal Elba Protected Area (GEPA)
  5. Institutional Support to SCA for Environmental Monitoring and Management of Cultural Heritage sites: applications to Fayoum oasis and North Saqqara Necropolis (ISSEMM)
  6. Legal and Institutional Framework Project (LIFP)
  7. Program Coordination Unit (PCU), second phase
  8. Siwa Environmental Amelioration Project (SEAP), second phase
  9.  Wadi Rayan Protected Area (WRPA), second phase.

Environment is a field that cuts across the activities of all ministries and institutions, public and private. A successful integration of environmental dimensions in relevant national policies, plans, programs, projects and practices, requires close cooperation with all stakeholders. It is expected that addressing priorities in close association, keeping roles and responsibilities of stakeholders well defined, as it is the case under consideration, the Program will produce added value results by means of reinforced synergies and integrated approach. The information generated by different Program’s components, the multidisciplinary expertise involved, both expatriate and local, and the links established among key governmental and non-governmental players will likely provide grounds to stakeholders for expanding the achieved results towards further opportunities and challenges, strengthening common interests, encouraging commitments and minimizing conflicts.

Based on the above, the Program has the overall objective of contributing to the protection of Egypt’s natural and cultural resources and it is based on the following principles:

  1. Consolidate the results achieved and ensure the sustainability of the activities undertaken by each project of the Program;
  2. Address new areas of priority and of special interest to the MSEA/EEAA, compatible with the overall objectives of Italian Cooperation;

  3. Build upon the experience and lessons learned in implementing the various project activities.


The specific objectives are:

  • To strengthen Egyptian capacities to analyze, plan and implement adequate measures for the conservation and rehabilitation of natural, cultural and man-made environments;
  • To enhance current strategies and ways to protect and expand available natural resources base, with the aim to leading to higher productivity, reduced migration and improvement of the living conditions in rural areas;
  • To contribute to reinforce the role of EEAA, as the central co-ordinating and competent body, and its partners institutions for the protection and promotion of the environment.


The expected results will be achieved by the different Projects, which are pursuing their individual targets. Those are detailed in each Project document. The activities of the three years duration Program are described in each Project document and are planned and implemented by each Project according to approved work plans and budgets.

The mechanism for implementation involves:

  1. Program Steering Committee at Central level,
  2. Project Executive Committees at Implementing Agency level,
  3. Project Management Units at Project level, and
  4. Program Coordination Unit.

The UNDP country office is supporting EEAA in the execution and implementation of the Program and Projects within the framework of the National Execution arrangements. UNDP is availing the services of Agreed Consultancies for the provision of technical assistance.

 The financing is as follows:

(i) The Italian funds, worth Euro 9,134,094, will be channeled in two ways, i.e. through UNDP (multi-bi-lateral channel) for the bulk of the Program, and by direct management of the technical assistance to the Program Coordination Unit;

(ii) The contribution from GOE, worth LE  19,898,766, is originated from the  Italian  “Debt-for-Development Swap” operations, agreed on February 2001 between the Italian and Egyptian Governments, and administered through UNDP. The above estimate doesn’t include the in kind-contribution and administrative service costs. 

The Program supports the implementation and development of individual Projects, which are designed to be sustainable in the medium-long run ranges. Nevertheless there are factors ensuring the sustainability, which can be considered as common strong elements of key importance. They include:

(i) continued commitment of the Implementing Agencies towards the activities undertaken and consolidation of results achieved,

(ii) capacity building: upon its completion, trained local staff will be in condition to ensure the continuous and proper development of the actions undertaken, under the individual Projects and within their respective institutions,

(iii) assets that will remain for the advantage of the Implementing Agencies: trained and skilled personnel, stronger institutions, tools and equipments, infrastructures, etc.

This piece is taken from the website of the Egyptian – Italian Environmental Cooperation Program (EIECP).

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