Archive for the ‘Environment Society of Oman’ Category

Environment Society of Oman – Project Sooty Falcon

September 15, 2011
To survey the sooty falcon population nesting on the islands of the Gulf of Oman and along the coast, to establish a long-term monitoring program and to use the data collected in Oman to understand the conservation status and ecology of sooty falcon. 
  date 2007 – Ongoing
  location Daymaniyat Islands, Fahal Island, Sawadi Islands, coast and islands of Musandam and other coastal sites of north Oman.

Oman is a stronghold for breeding sooty falcons world-wide.  Perhaps as much as 4% of the global population occurs on Fahal Island alone.  Oman also leads the world in research on sooty falcons, with the first surveys being done in 1978.  In recent years an annual effort has begun to study population dynamics and the ecology of sooty falcons.


The Sooty Falcon is a migratory, medium-sized falcon that breeds almost exclusively in north-eastern Africa and Arabia.  It winters in Madagascar.  It is unusual in that it breeds in the height of summer so that it might feed its nestlings on birds migrating to Africa in autumn.  It can breed at very high densities on islands of the Arabian or Red Seas.  In recent years population estimates of sooty falcons have been reduced by 40-fold, and its conservation status is now “Vulnerable”.


Lack of information on this species from across its range undermines our ability to conserve it.  Oman holds enough breeding sooty falcons to allow meaning breeding-ground studies to be undertaken. Understanding gained from these studies will underpin science based conservation efforts.


The first survey of Oman’s Sooty Falcon was conducted in 1978 (Walter 1979) and since 2007, we have established the distribution of the falcon, located and marked nest sites and collected data on reproductive success and diet.  The data sugges about a 15% decline in the Omani population since 1978, and the main cause of this decline is thought to be human disturbance.


Full survey of the Omani population to determine size, geographical extent and reproductive success
Tag falcons with microchip rings; collect blood, feathers and unhatched egg for DNA analysis
Establish regular monitoring of the Omani sooty falcon populations by Omani institutions
Undertake innovative new research to provide information to underpin conservation efforts world-wide
Provide training opportunities for Oman government employees and SQU students
In order to achieve its aims, ESO is working in collaboration with MECA, as well as scientists and conservationists from international organisations


  how you
can help
Arranging logistics for field trips
Fundraising for the exhibition to include printing of photographs and setting up professional photomontage
Design and printing of leaflets and posters
Design and printing of T-shirts / baseball caps / other merchandising


This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

See on-line at:

Environment Society of Oman – Plastic Bags Campaign

September 15, 2011

After much planning, anticipation and requests from our members, ESO decided to implement an Anti Plastic Bag awareness raising campaign with the slogan:


“No to Plastic Bags For Oman”

Our aim is to raise awareness of the dangers of plastic bag pollution as well as to try and initiate a change in both consumers and retail outlet behaviour. Our end goal is to present the relevant government authorities with enough information and baseline data to be able to regulate the use of plastic bags in Oman.


As a result of our campaign, all partner supermarkets have begun producing their own reusable bags.


The campaign was launched on Oct 25th 2008 and was funded by Oman LNG LLC, to whom we are extremely grateful.


We would also like to thank the Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs for their endorsement of the campaign.

Elements include:


Training Retail Staff at Large Supermarkets


This commenced in December 2008 and we have the following supermarkets on board:


Al Fair
Khimji Mart
Sultan Center
Shell Select Shops
Oman Oil Shops
Al MahaSouq Shops

We hope that the supermarkets will ensure the training is properly enforced and a few have already agreed to implementing a policy change within their own companies.

The supermarket launch of the campaign began on Jan 8th 2009 where volunteers and school children were present at 14 locations of our partner supermarkets, giving out reusable bags and information. Staff at the supermarkets will be using their training in future on how to pack bags and asking customers whether they need a plastic bag.

Throughout the month following January 8th, reusuable jute bags were available for a nominal fee of 100bz from these supermarkets and many of the supermarkets have already started to make their own bags for customers to buy and reuse (as ESO is only able to make a certain number for the campaign).  For those interested in purchasing bulk reusable jute bags please contact The Jute Company (


We are unable to reach all the smaller “foodstuff shops” with training and so we will be handing out laminated sheets with facts, statistics and information as well as how best to pack bags and asking customers if they need a plastic bags.


Raising Awareness within Schools

14 private schools were targeted in the Muscat area and all public schools in the Sultanate. ESO prepared presentations and discussion points as well as having displayed posters and other awareness raising materials at the schools.


School children volunteered on January 8th at the supermarkets.

Tour of Oman

We have been traveling around in a branded van to 5 locations and surrounding areas, again giving out reusable bags, merchandise, information and raising awareness through a media campaign.



Green Pace

On February 27th 2009 the Crowne Plaza hosted a family event open to all. Participants used any mode of  non -polluting transport, eg. walk, run, cycle, rollerblade. Over 400 people attended.




This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

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Environment Society of Oman – Protected Areas

September 15, 2011

Oryx Sanctuary

Established: 1994
Location: Al Wusta
Area: 22,824.3 km2

The Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was formally established by Royal Decree No 4/94. It lies in Al Wusta Region and originally covered an area of 24,785.4 sq km. This vast expanse encompassed a diverse range of ecosystems, with features such as plains, sand dunes and hills. In addition to its topographical diversity, the area is rich in natural and cultural features. It also supports various plant and animal species such as the Arabian Oryx, Nubian Ibex, Caracal, Arabian Gazelle, Houbara Bustard and other animals.

In recognition of its significant scenic and ecological value the Sanctuary was inscribed on the World Heritage List by UNESCO in December 1994.

In 2007 the Government reduced the size of the area by 90% due to the dwindling numbers of oryx mainly due to poaching. The area was said to be too large to patrol and manage correctly.

In June 2007 the sanctuary was deleted from the World Heritage List.

For more information on the sanctuary:

Ras al Jinz Turtle Reserve

Established: 1996
Location: Sharqiyah South / Sur
Area: 2,120 km2

Oman’s Turtle Reserve combines the previously proposed Ras Al Hadd National Scenic Reserve and the Ras al Jinz National Nature Reserve and encloses 120 sq. km. (12,000 ha.) of beaches, shorelands, adjacent sea and seabed and two khawrs.

Approximately 13,000 Green Turtles nest on the complex of beaches included in the Reserve. The beaches, which attract the greatest number of nesting Green Turtles in the Sultanate, are of national, regional and global importance for the survival of this endangered species, and form the principal justification for the establishment of the reserve.

The turtles of the area are threatened to an increasing degree by human activities. Nets and boats on the nesting beaches interfere with the nesting activities and nearshore nets block the access to nesting beaches. Camping on or near the beaches cause a disturbance and the village lights attract the nestlings.

The Reserve includes a great number and variety of archaeological sites of significant importance. The research on these sites and the protection of such sites from future development needs to be addressed.

The two khawrs and the cliffs along the coast are important bird areas and the protection of these as well as the limited stand of mangroves in Khawr Al Jaramah is important.

Oman LNG has provided RO 1 million in funding to the government in order to build a visitor’s centre acting as an entrance to the reserve. The Centre is due to open in late 2008.

Daymaniyat Island Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Batinah
Area: 203 km2

The Daymaniyat Islands Nature Reserve encloses 203 sq. km. (20,300 ha.) of sea and seabed and includes the nine islands, rocks and reefs and offshore shoals situated 16 – 18 kilometres off the Seeb-Barka coast.

The islands are an outstanding conservation area of national and regional importance. They have the highest density of nesting seabirds and the only known Osprey nesting sites in the capital area. They also shelter the largest nesting population of Hawksbill Turtles in the country. These are relatively unspoiled islands of great scenic beauty offering a living natural museum, including nesting Green Turtles and Sooty Falcons and a variety of reefs with high coral diversity.

Both the islands and the reefs are important to the mainland based fisherman and people from Muscat, for fishing and recreational diving. This is the most important site for wildlife conservation in the capital area and should be managed to retain its values for wildlife, recreation and fisheries.

Following a baseline survey of the Islands in April 2007 ESO found that the coral reefs had increased in size significantly (click here to download report ). In June 2007, the Sultanate was hit by Cyclone Gonu and unfortunately much of this coral growth was destroyed. ESO is now in the process of conducting a “post-Gonu” assessment of the reefs.

For more information click here.

(Information adapted from Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs)

Saleel Nature Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Sharqiyah South / Kamil Wo Wafi
Area: 220 km2

Saleel Nature Reserve (protected under Royal Decree Decree No. 50 / 97 on 28 / 6 / 97) lies in the eastern region of Oman between Badyiah and Sur. The 220 square kilometers consists of a series of mountainous and rocky plains as well as some valleys and high hills. The Reserve is home to deer and wild cat and some local and migratory birds.

Samhan Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Dhofar / Taqah, Mirbat, Sadah
Area: 4,500 km2

The Jabal Samhan Nature Reserve in the Dhofar region of the Sultanate of Oman encompasses a track of limestone highlands, rising steeply from the coastal plain and sloping more gently towards the north. The Jabal, or mountain, has a 1,500 m escarpment which overlooks the Zalawt foothills and the plain of the Marbat – Sadh peninsula. Jabal Samhan Nature Reserve consists of an array of barren, scalloped peaks separated by deep wadis and canyons. These deep wadis contain rare and unique plants such as Caralluma sp. and Anogeissus dhofarica. Most of the wadis contain water pools where the rare wild animals like the Leopard, Ibex, Gazelle, Striped Hyena, Foxes and Wolves come to drink.


The coast between Ras Nuss and Ras Qanawt is dominated by rugged steeply shelving volcanic jabal, interrupted by several medium sized beaches. Crayfish and abalone occur in the sublittoral zone and good populations of Green and Loggerhead Turtles nest on the beaches. The Reserve also includes Jabal Habrer which catches the influence of the Khareef (monsoon). As a result a small area of Anogeissus dhofarica has developed and also present is the only location of Pappea capensis on the Arabian peninsula.

Khawr Qurom Sageir / Kabeir


Established: 1997
Location: Dhofar / Salalah
Area: 0.014 km2

Small (Qurom Khawr) is located at a distance of about 10 kilometres west of Salalah. 300 m long and 50 meters wide, it is almost rectangular in shape. The trees of Crimea (Platoon alartdiat) is dominant, and is limited to the sides of the khawr. There are also Phragmites australis as well as Cresa cretia, Aleuropus, lagopoides, Sorobolus virgineus and Alrsasiat. Due to overgrazing, the area has been fenced and since the establishment of the fence the trees have started to recover. The Large (Qurom Khawr) is also located in the city of Salalah. The vegetation surrounding Khawr is in very bad condition due to continual camel feeding and over-grazing.

Khawr Baleed Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Dhofar / Salalah
Area: 1 km2

Khawr Baleed was proposed as a National Nature Reserve by the IUCN in 1986 and then again in 1990. A concept development plan was completed in 1995 suggesting the establishment of an Archaeological Park. This park is located within the municipality of Salalah in the Governorate of Dhofar, Sultanate of Oman. The park contains the archaeological remains of Al Baleed, an important medieval trading city. Its site is of great importance in the history of Oman.


The establishment of Al Baleed Archaeological park has three fundamental goals. First, and most important, it must provide for the preservation of the natural resources. Second, it aims to develop an education program to inform visitors of the significance of Al Baleed in the history of Oman. Third, it should seek to increase tourism to the site.

Khawr Dahareez Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Dhofar / Salalah
Area: 0.600 km2

Khawr Dahareez on the eastern outskirts of Salalah was proposed as a National Scenic Reserve by the IUCN in 1986 and as a Nature reserve by the Planning Committee for Development and Environment in the Governorate of Dhofar in 1993.


This khawr is an important refuge for migrating birds. The invasion of alien plant species such as Prosopis juliflora is the most prominent and visible threat at the moment.

Khawr Sawli Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Dhofar / Mirbat
Area: 1 km2

Khawr Sawli is located 30 km east of Salalah. It was fenced in 1992 due to reports of camel deaths at this khawr. The fenced area included some prominent archaeological sites. Investigations reveal a great diversity of fish and birds in Khawr Sawli.


The vegetation of the khawr is in a very poor condition due to extensive grazing by camels that enter through the open gates and broken fences. Quarries of limestone have occurred on the west of the khawr and plots for limestone quarries have been allocated to the north-west of the khawr. These activities are incompatible with the accepted norms for tourism and has degraded the tourism potential.

Khawr Taqah Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Dhofar / Taqah
Area: 1.07 km2

Khawr Taqah is located immediately west of the town of Taqah about 30 km west of Salalah. This khawr, with a large deep freshwater body fed by a spring, has a permanent connection to the sea and an outflow of 140 l/min. The khawr has a high diversity in bird and fish life.

Khawr Rawri Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Dhofar / Mirbat – Taqah
Area: 8.2 km2

Khawr Rawri is the largest of the proclaimed khawrs along the Salalah coast measuring 2.5 km long and up to 400 m wide. Khawr Rawri provides an important habitat for birds, fish and a representative sample of the vegetation of the gravel plains under the influence of the Khareef.


Khawr Rawri is better known for the very important archaeological site on its banks, Samharam.

Khawr Awqad Reserve

Established: 1997
Location: Dhofar / Salalah
Area: 0.016 km2

Khawr Awqad is situated in Salalah and is under increasing threat to become a waste dumping place in the near future. The khawr was not zoned as a conservation area in the Subregional Land Use Plans and it was not included in the IUCN proposals for protection status. The increasing demand for land to expand housing in Salalah will gradually threaten the existence of this khawr. The khawr is an important bird site and also an important source of fresh water for the irrigation plots adjacent to it.


This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

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Environment Society of Oman – Terrestrial

September 14, 2011

Geology and Topography


The north of Oman is dominated by the Hajar Range, a chain of rugged limestone and dolomite mountains, stretching from Musandam to Sur and rising to just over 3,000m at the highest point of the Jebel al Akhdhar. They are flanked by lower mountains of ophiolite, an igneous rock originating from upheavals of oceanic crust.

Along the north-east of the range is the alluvial plain of the Batinah region, whilst to the west and south gravel plains stretch to the southern governorate of Dhofar.


These plains cover some 80% of the surface of Oman and border the Arabian Sea. In the west the extensive sand dunes of the Rub’ al Khali stretch beyond the border with Saudi Arabia.


The separate Sharqiyah Sands, covering some 9,300 sq km, lie to the east, near the southern extemity of the Hajar range. In the Governorate of Dhofar the gravel plains rise southwards to the escarpment of the Dhofar mountains, reaching 1,800 m and comprising mainly tertiary rocks, including calcareous shale, limestone, and massive gypsum.


With the exception of the mountain regions and Dhofar, the climate is hot and dry, with annual rainfall less than 100 mm. Summer temperatures can reach as high as 54°C with mean temperatures in Muscat of 33°C. Winter temperatures are mild and pleasant ranging between 15°C – 23°C.


The Hajar range attracts higher but sporadic rainfall, more often in the winter months, but also from occasional thunderstorms in the summer.

The climate of Dhofar is dominated by the south-west monsoon, which brings dense mists and some rain to the escarpment and the Salalah plain during the months of July, August and September, resulting in a belt of grass and woodland in the mountain region, densest on the steep slopes facing south to the Arabian Sea.


The remainder of the country is arid with sporadic winter rain and occasional thunderstorms in the summer. Rainfall is higher in the Hajar range, bringing more vegetation, though limited by lack of soil in the rugged terrain.


Fog moisture, especially in the spring and autumn, benefits the vegetation of the central plains of the Jiddat al Harasis.


The flora of the Sultanate reflects the influence of Iran in the north, with an increasing influence of African species from the Eastern Hajar mountains southwards to Dhofar. Of approximately 1,200 species found in Oman, some 87 are endemic or near-endemic – occurring only in Oman or shared with its immediate neighbours. Of these, 75 are endemic to Dhofar, mainly found in the mountains within the monsoon belt.


Some 86 mammal species or sub-species occur in Oman offering a wide variety of wildlife including some endangered, endemic Arabian animals such as the Arabian Tahr (Wa’al al Arabi), Arabian Oryx and the Arabian Leopard.


Of the regionally endemic large mammals, the Arabian Tahr – Wa’al al Arabi (Hemitragus jayakari), classified as ‘endangered’, occurs only in the northern mountains including those of the UAE. The ‘critically endangered’ Arabian leopard (Panthera pardus nimr), a regionally endemic subspecies, can be found in the Dhofar mountains.


Over 480 species have been recorded in Oman, the majority being migrants travelling seasonally between northern Asia some as far north as the Arctic, and Africa. Around 100 species are breeding residents.

Other Terrestrial Fauna

Many species of reptiles, arthropods, amphibians, insects and lower order fauna occur throughout Oman. A visit to the Oman Natural History Museum at the Ministry of Heritage and Culture is strongly recommended for a closer look at the full range of Oman’s biological diversity.

The Landscape

Oman’s natural and cultural landscapes are famous for their astonishing beauty, from dramatic high peaks and canyons, ancient oasis settlements with their traditional forts and houses, dense monsoon forests, barren gravel wildernesses, sand seas furrowed by high dunes, to coastal cliffs and fjords. To geologists they tell the story of millions of years of Oman’s history because, unlike temperate countries where rock formations are mostly covered by soil and vegetation, the geology of Oman is visible for all to see.

In today’s crowded industrial world, wildernesses have a special appeal to the international tourist, many of whom wish to go to places where they will not be among crowds of other tourists: Oman is able to offer this experience as well as the more conventional types of holiday.


The landscape is the foundation of responsible tourism, a sustainable way to support the economy of rural areas, through employment. It contains all Oman’s terrestrial species, so care of the landscape helps to protect what is within it. Aside from tourism, a beautiful landscape sustains the quality of life for all those who live and work within it, encouraging their sense of ownership and pride.

The Mountainous North


Wadis (valleys) dissect the mountains of northern and central Oman and provide the only means of access to many areas. While most wadis are seasonal, some have a constant flow of water, attracting settlement and wildlife. Red Foxes, mountain gazelle, hares (which include a race unique to Oman), small rodents and even wolves may still be found, although the latter are more likely to be seen further south.


Other creatures to watch out for include the Blue-Headed Agamid Lizards, ‘water snakes’ (most commonly, racers) and Arabian Toads. Bats can be found in many of the extensive cave systems and birds of prey such as Egyptian Vultures and, for the lucky, Golden Eagles, circle above magnificent mountain panoramas.

Breathtaking views and a remarkable juniper forest are to be found at the summit of Jabal Shams (Sun Mountain), Arabia’s highest peak standing at 3000 metres. One of the few places in the peninsula where snowfall is not unexpected in winter months. Most importantly, this region is home to the nimble-footed Arabian Tahr (Wa’al), the rare and shy goat-like animal confined and unique to this small, mountainous part of the world.


The deserts of Oman vary from the rolling sand seas of the Sharqiyah, with classic dunes of rich gold, to the flat stony Jiddat al Harasis in central Oman and the Rub al-Khali or ‘Empty Quarter’ further south, where individual mountains of sand rise from a flat desert and stretch endlessly across the border into Saudi Arabia. However, far from being empty, the desert is host to a surprising amount of wildlife. Caracal Lynx, Sand Foxes and Wild Sand Cats, with hair-covered feet that help provide grip in soft sand, are some of the larger predators. Rheem Gazelle, Arabia’s largest gazelle, also seem to prefer sandy regions.

On rocky outcrops, such as the Huqf escarpment to the east of the Jiddat al Harasis plains, live Nubian Ibex. They are also found in more mountainous areas. The males, in particular, with their magnificent horns, are an impressive sight. The desert provides habitat too for skinks, lizards and geckos and their more deadly cousins, such as the Saw-Scales or Carpet Viper and the Horned Adder. A host of small rodents survive the desert heat despite the high metabolic rates of small mammals. A number of species of gerbils, jirds, jerboas, mice, shrews and rats have all adapted to life under harsh conditions.


Flocks of Coronetted, Chestnut-Bellied, Spotted and Lichtenstein’s Sandgrouse can be regularly seen soaking their naturally engineered, water bearing breast feathers in precious watering holes and transporting the stored water to ground nests some distance away.


Precambrian basement sediments formed the Dhofar mountains in the far south of Oman. The annual monsoons brought by the khareef (south-west winds), between early July and the end of August, create lush green hillsides and cool temperatures along the coast and mountain regions. Immediately behind the mountains the desert heat continues to scorch the earth. This seasonal transition creates a haven for wildlife as well as spectacular mountain drives and hikes.


The best time to visit is September.


The capital of Dhofar is Salalah, known throughout Arabia as ‘The Garden City’ – relaxed, cool and humid and rife with banana, coconut, sugarcane and papaya plantations. Beyond the plains of Salalah where frankincense trees grow, rise the wooded hillsides of Jabal Qara. The vegetation that clads the southern mountains is unique in Arabia. The dominant and endemic Anogeissus dhofarica was only scientifically described in 1979. Among the vegetation are trees more commonly associated with Africa and Asia, such as the magnificent baobab.

The desert rose is an attractive and distinctive plant which was used for medicinal purposes by the Jibbali people of the Dhofar hills. During the monsoon great waterfalls tumble over limestone cliffs into the sea several hundred feet below, and springs such as those at Ayn Razat and Ayn Jarsis bubble with freshwater. Some pools remain year round in many of the wadi beds, such as Wadi Darbat, offering a constant supply of water for resident and passing wildlife.


Even where the greenery ends, wildlife thrives. Leopard, Caracal, Hyena, Wolf and Ratel all find territories along with many others. Hedgehogs and the nocturnal vegetarian Porcupines leave evidence of their presence with a handful of shed quills, and birds pass through in their thousands.

Where wadis reach the sea, lagoons (khors), form along the coast, acting as a focal point for wildlife, especially birds. Reeds and reedmace typically line the landward rims of the khors while the salt tolerant mangrove trees spread seaward. Some of the more spectacular birds to frequent Oman are to be found in khors such as the stately Flamingo, colourful ducks, storks, stilts, plovers, sandpipers, egrets, herons and the Glossy Ibis.

To the north-east of Salalah, is a beautiful sand beach 30 km in length that sweeps the bay forming the mouth of Oman’s largest and probably most spectacular wadi – Wadi Shuwaymiyah. The wadi forms a huge snaking canyon with dramatic vertical cliffs of white limestone. Long fingers of porous travertine form stalactites along overhanging cliff edges and deep pools of sweet water are surrounded by vegetation. Breathtaking scenery and wildlife is to be found in this remote haven of natural beauty.


This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

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Environment Society of Oman – Marine

September 14, 2011



The seas of the Sultanate of Oman occupy an isolated corner of the Indian Ocean, where some of the world’s most varied and biologically productive waters are found. In the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea, vast open ocean plains, canyons and trenches of extreme depth abruptly meet the coastline forming underwater cliffs several kilometers high. This contrasts with the gently sloping continental shelf of the Arabian Gulf and northern Gulf of Oman and has resulted in a great diversity of marine habitats.

Most of Oman’s waters lie within the tropics, but they nevertheless exhibit among the greatest seasonal variability found in any of the world’s oceans. The two main climatic influences are the winter and summer monsoons. The winter monsoon is characterized by a relatively gentle and variable, dry northeast wind, known locally as ‘Shamal’. This wind occurs between November and April, leading to modest increases in productivity and a current that flows to the southwest.


The vigorous summer monsoon, or ‘Kharif’, forcefully reverses this circulation pattern and has a dramatic effect on the Sultanate’s seas. Cold, nutrient-rich waters well up in the Arabian Sea, and once at the surface, sunlight triggers phytoplankton blooms that persist for three or four months of the year and fuel the region’s primary productivity.

Musandam Region

The ragged coastline of the Musandam region, includes spectacular cliffs that plunge into the sea along fjiord-like inlets and promontories that characterize the region’s coast. The shelter afforded by the many khayran, harbour some of the most well-developed corals reefs in the country, whilst the cliffs themselves provide a roosting place for seabirds. Offshore, the seabed slopes gently southwards into the Gulf of Oman.

Al Batinah

The low-energy shoreline of the Batinah region in the Gulf of Oman, extends seaward as a wide continental shelf, that is generally desert-like and relatively featureless. A string of islands breaks the monotony; Oman’s only marine protected area, the Daymaniyat Islands Nature Reserve. Coral reefs thrive in clear waters and support a fantastic range of associated reef life, from sea anemones to Whale Sharks. The islands are also home to internationally important nesting seabirds and the critically endangered Hawksbill Turtle.

Muscat Region

The long-sweeping beach of the Batinah gives way to the rocky shores of Muscat, studded with coral reefs along a shoreline carved from limestone. Once used by ancient seafarers, the many bays, inlets and coves continue to shelter fishermen and attract tourists with their scenic splendour and promise of diverse and exciting marine life. Dolphins and whales are frequently seen in offshore waters that rapidly descend to depths of over 3,000 metres.



Rocky coastline extends southwards throughout much of the Sharqiyah region, reaching the easternmost tip of Arabia at the famous beaches of Ras al Hadd. Green Turtles nest here throughout the year in numbers that probably exceed those of any other turtle rookery in the Indian Ocean. The Wahiba Sands meet the shoreline south of Ras al Hadd, separating it from Oman’s other major turtle nesting site; the island of Masirah.

All four of Oman’s nesting turtles find space to nest on Masirah Island, but the majority are Loggerhead Turtles. As many as 30,000 females have been estimated to congregate here to nest between the months of March and August, forming possibly the largest nesting population in the world.

Al Wusta

Intense productivity in the waters of the Al Wusta region make the generally shallow seas here almost permanently green in colour. The vast swarms of phytoplankton attract a wealth of fish life, many of which apparently spawn here. Coastal whales, such as Humpback and Bryde’s Whales are attracted to this area and seabirds feed in their thousands. Onshore, still more birds, possibly over a million each year, dot the white sandy beaches and salt flats or wade in the shallows at Barr al Hikman, many of them passing through on migration.

Barr al Hikman is also special for another reason. A coral reef, perhaps thirty square kilometers in extent, lies in shallow waters off the south coast of the area and is uniquely made from a single coral species, the Oman Cabbage Coral.


Dhofar’s spectacular coasts and seas differ markedly from those further north in the country. Like Musandam, cliff’s plummet into the sea from coastal escarpments, whilst elsewhere khayran and sweeping beaches are reminiscent of Batinah or Muscat shorelines. At certain times of the year many of these beaches are criss-crossed by the tracks of turtles that return seasonally to nest.


The beaches below the spectacular headlands and cliffs of Ra’as Hamar, just half an hour’s drive west of Salalah, is one spot where it is possible, in late summer months, to watch both Green and Loggerhead Turtles nesting simultaneously.

However, it is here that the ‘Kharif’ is centred, turning both the shores and the seas green as it fuels prolific primary productivity.


The kharif begins in May, when southwesterly winds race across the Arabian Sea, driving surface waters seaward. Cold, nutrient- rich waters well up from the depths, spawning a tremendous abundance of marine life. Kelp-like algae flourish and form acres of swaying fields of seaweed, growing side-by-side with corals; a phenomenon that can only be witnessed in this part of the world. Fish life is spectacularly abundant, attracting large marine predators, like sharks, dolphins and whales in high numbers.


In undisturbed offshore areas, such as at the Halaaniyat Islands, pods of Sperm Whales may number over 50 individuals, whilst Arabian Long-Beaked Common Dolphins can school in thousands.


This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

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Environment Society of Oman – ESO Board

September 14, 2011
Patron: HH Sayyid Tarik Shabib Al Said
  President: HH Sayyida Tania Shabib Al Said
  Vice President: Dr. Mehdi Ahmed Jaaffar
  Executive Director: Lamees Abdallah Daar
  Secretary: Raed Mohammed Dawood
  Treasurer: Yasser Habib Macki
  PR Officer: Dana Sarhan Al Sarhani
  Membership Officer: Dr. Juma Said Al Maskari
  Board Member: Nasser Essa Maskari (in charge of Community Outreach)
  Board Member: Osamah Mahmood Abdullatif 
  Board Member: Dr. Muhsin Musalem Al Amri


This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

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Environment Society of Oman – Strategy

September 14, 2011










Identify and meet with “stakeholders” of (selected) existing conservation areas to define “a way forward” for support and possible cooperation. Current areas include Ras al Hadd, Damaniyat Islands, Masirah Island and Wadi As Sareen.


Prepare set of recommendations for joint management of (selected) existing conservation areas (offshore and onshore).


Prepare business plan and secure funding for pilot demonstration project with a nature reserve working with local communities.


Establish annual review of existing programmes/projects portfolio to determine priority areas. Align with National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP).


Investigate local regional and international funding opportunities.

Establish database of expert contacts (people, organisations, publications), to consolidate expertise. Create plan to ensure sustainability of ESO expertise.


Continue to support incoming new personal project proposals, if aligned with main ESO mission.


Investigate/consolidate links with other organisations and stakeholders.



Start implementing pilot demonstration project with nature reserves working with local community


Establish clear role for ESO, playing a greater part in conservation – policy, implementation, standards.


Joint venture body to manage (selected) areas – supporting them to jointly operate

nature conservation areas in an environmentally sensitive manner, including


sustainable tourism.


Demonstrate to graduates a career exists in conservation in Oman.

Ensure all information and data is properly archived

Ensure NBSAP targets are being implemented.

Start to identify projects to document / capture traditional knowledge eg of traditional plant.

Current databases and research of fauna and flora are scattered.

Establish central knowledge bank in Oman. Establish ESO as a major repository of information.

Put processes in place to ensure quality of own database/knowledge.



Identify and start review of current ESO education/awareness practices to determine effectiveness.

Start identification of projects to encourage local community involvement/volunteers.

Launch bilingual newsletter and encourage volunteers and members to contribute.

MOU with Ministry of Education has been signed with ESO being an advisor to introduce environmental education in the curriculum. Push for action with Ministry of Education.


Part time educator(s): lecturer in schools, organisations – en route to spreading awareness.



Establish annual review of existing programme/project portfolio to determine what we are doing now and why, what we should be doing, what we should focus on and revise plans accordingly.

List NGO’s, and engage with them on possible opportunities.

Engage with corporate members/sponsors on actions and commitments.

Work with other stakeholders to identify Oman CO2 sequestration or carbon credit projects.

All Muscat-area schools (public & private) have been made aware of the segregation/recycling project, and have decided on participation or not. Following up target school communities outside Muscat.

Raise awareness in business and government, with aim of maximising participation in recycling and other behaviour-changing initiatives 


A number of key changing behaviour projects should be running successfully.

Projects or (applied) research opportunities identified and being implemented to (start) providing foundation to government in an advisory role.

Both corporate and public recycling should be established in Muscat, as well as in other major business/population centres.

ESO carbon neutrality.

Establish ESO as an environmental accreditation body for corporations.

A significant proportion of communities’ and business’ behaviours are changing,

as a result of engagement with ESO.



Define publicity strategy, using professional advice and set targets.

Hire PR company to create high profile for ESO.

Build active network of contacts in key areas of government.

Start to engage with government/industry/organisations / public /

municipalities/clubs to build networks and identify decision-makers

Execute campaign to highlight role of ESO. Visit Municipalities and Ministries to explore activities/projects of common interest. Needs to be tied to clear ESO plan/strategy.

Attendance at all significant/relevant public events



Pursue active partnership to influence policies and decisions.

Participate on key working groups and committees.

Participate in joint projects.

Build environmental awareness, within government via briefings and discussion groups.

Review environmental laws, regulations and strategies, to see where action and influence is required.


Active partnership with government to influence policies and decisions



Understand the components (building blocks) of Tourism and Ecotourism

Understand Ministry of Tourism (MoT) structure

Engage with MoT and explore possible areas of cooperation. Agree Memorandum of Understanding. Need ESO negotiating team, mandate, strategy.

Define ESO role/strategy in EIA/management plans

Endeavour to influence the direction of Ras al Hadd and Damaniyat development projects. Start with preparing (or being auditor of) EIA/management plans and locating required experts, Sultan Qaboos University graduates.


Education role – influence design of education programmes/courses (eg. in cooperation with Ministries (of Tourism, Environment and Climate Affairs, Education) and Universities and Colleges.



Sustainable non-project income: current RO 30K/year RO 60K/year.

Sustainable project funding: current RO 30K/year 45 (depends on projects strategy & activity level).

Networking potential corporate/organisational sponsors.

International funding – identify and define sources.

Defined benefit structure for corporate members vs sponsors.

Define terms and conditions for corporate membership and sponsorship.

Create financial and fundraising strategy.




Be able to sustainably run ESO in an office of 4 to 5 full time staff.

Create ESO endowment fund

Mobilise funds for a green office for ESO





Define role/commitment of Board.

Define role/scope of and create Executive Committee.

Create job descriptions for ESO Manager, and PR/fundraising coordinator and project managers.


Volunteer management plan.

Recruit part time fresh graduates on short term basis.



Long term sustainability and succession plan in place.

Recruit and fund Project Managers. Target young graduates / interested parties for this role.


ESO should be active in areas outside of Muscat.





Increase individual membership by 30%.

Omani content current +/- 50/50 split 60%.

Corporate membership 1632 (ties to sponsorship, networking, proactive approach).


Increase corporate membership fee to RO 1000.

Increase membership and activities outside Muscat.



2000 members.

 75% Omani content.
 Motivated and active individual members.
 Motivated and active corporate members.


This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

See on-line at: 

Environment Society of Oman – Constitution

September 14, 2011




Chapter One – General Rules 4


Article1 Foundation of the society 4


Article 2 Establishing other branches 4


Article 3 Legal Identity 4


Article 4 Legal representation of the society 4


Article 5 Prohibition of involving in politics 4


Article 6 Placing the name of the society on its stationary, records and publications 5


Chapter Two – Objectives and means of implementation and activities of the society 5


Article 7 Goals 5


Article 8 Means of achieving goals 6


Chapter Three – Membership 6


Article 9 Minimum age of membership 6


Article 10 Membership categories 7


Article 11 Ordinary and student members 7


Article 12 General Definition 7


Article 13 Termination of membership 8


Article 14 Regaining membership 8


Article 15 Reclaiming membership fees or any donations or gifts 9


Article 16 Members’ duties 9


Article 17 Members’ rights 9


Chapter Four – General Assembly 10


Article 18 Membership requirements 10


Article 19 Ordinary general meeting of the general assembly 10


Article 20 Legal procedures of general assembly meeting

Article 21 The general assembly extraordinary session 11

Article 22 Notifying the Ministry concerned with the date of the general assembly meeting 11

Article 23 General assembly resolutions 11

Article 24 Nominating other members to represent members at general assembly meeting 12

Chapter Five – Society Administration 12

Article 25 Election of the Executive board 12

Article 26 Powers and functions of the executive board 12

Article 27 Duties of the executive board 13

Article 28 Meeting dates of the executive board 13

Article 29 Members of the executive board 13

Article 30 Prohibition of holding another membership at an executive board of the society 14

Article 31 Duties of the executive board members 14

Article 32 Form sub committees executive board 16

Article 33 Executive board monthly meeting 16

Article 34 Extraordinary meeting 17

Article 35 Election of executive board members 17

Chapter Six – Sources of Funds 17

Article 36 Sources of Funds 17

Article 37 The fiscal year 17

Article 38 Bank accounts of the society shall have its official name 17

Article 39 Opening a bank account at a local bank 18

Article 40 Keep custody of its financial records at least five successful years 18

Chapter Seven – Dissolution of the Society 18

Article 41 In the case of failing to achieve its aims and objectives 18

Article 42 Dissolution of the society and its remaining funds 18

Environment Society of Oman
Chapter One – General Rules
Article 1 Founding of the Society
The society was funded in response to the directive of establishing of clubs and civil societies in the Sultanate of Oman based on His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said Royal Decree No 14/2000 of the year 2000. The name of this Society shall be the Environment Society of Oman (ESO). The activities of the Society may extand to cover all the Sultanate regions.

Article 2 Establishing other Branches
Branches of the Society could be established in other regions of the Sultanate whenever deemed necessary.

Article 3 Legal Identity
The Society shall have an independent legal character that has independent custody.

Article 4 Legal Representation of the Society
The Society shall be legally represented by the Executive Board Chairperson or whoever shall be deputized with the approval of the Executive Board.

Article 5 Prohibition of involving in politics

The Society must not get involved in politics, form politics parties or interfere in religious matters. It must distance itself from being associated with any tribal or sectarian groups as stated in the rules and regulations governing the Civil Societies. The Society must not, particularly, get involved, in the following activities:

a) Perform any activities other than those mentioned in the constitution.

b) Affiliate with or become a member of or associate with any other organization, body, or club outside Oman without obtaining prior approval from the Ministry of Social Development.

c) Hold public events, festivals or deliver public speech without obtaining prior approval from the Ministry of Social Development.

d) Send or receive delegates to or from outside the country without obtaining prior approval from the Ministry of Social Development.

e) Provide facilities for gambling activities or consuming spirits in its premises.

f) Invest and deal with the funds and money of the Society in stock securities.

The society must abide by the code of ethics, rules and traditions of the Omani Society. The Society should refrain from violating the security of the country or the form of the government identity.

Article 6 Placing the name of the Society on its stationary, records and publications

The name, Headquarter address, registration number and the logo of the Society should be placed in all its stationary, records and publications.

Chapter Two – Objectives and means of implementation and

Activities of the Society

Article 7 Goals

The Society shall aim to:

a. Operate in the field of conserving and protecting the environment, promotion of knowledge and awareness and performing scientific activities for the benefit of the general good of the local community, especially in regard to conserving and protecting the Omani environment.

b. Promote greater environment awareness of all classes of the people in all matters related to environment.

c. Enable the citizens to play an active role and volunteer for the working in schemes related to protecting nature and preserving environment.

d. Promote an environment that provides opportunities to espress and exchange of views and information on issues affecting environment preservation in Oman.

e. Cooperate with local, regional and international authorities sharing common objectives and also in the areas of research and scientific organizations on issues and activities of mutual interests related to the environment.

f. Coordinate with statutory, local and other authorities with similar aims through the exchange of information. Draw attention to issues and concerns of common interest and offer due advice.

g. Propose projects and assist in scientific fields studies whenever appropriate and foster study and research into preserving environment whenever deemed appropriate.

h. Establish close relationships with other societies of common interest.

Article 8 Means of Achieving the Goals

The Society may undertake the following activities to achieve its goals:

a. To periodically convene conferences, give lectures, conduct symposia, launch campaigns, hold meeting and organize environmental exhibitions.

b. To organize and provide scientific programs to train and develop its members’ skills.

c. To organize technical lectures and arrange field visit for its members.

d. To prepare and distribute any bulletins, circulars, leaflets, documents, studies or any related material to its members.

e. To provide financial and moral support to carry out training and development programs within the available capabilities of the society.

f. To conduct informational and awareness activities to inform the members and the public about the Society’s activities through issuing a magazine about its membership. To publish the Society’s news in daily papers, magazine and any available mass media.

g. To provide opportunities for exchange of environmental information through various channels.

h. To established a data bank for membership purposes.

Chapter Three – Membership

Article 9 Minimum age of membership

The membership of the society shall be open to all Omani and non Omani individuals who are at least 18 years and legally competent and have a desire to join the Society provided they abide by the terms and rules and regulations of its constitution.

Article 10 membership Categories

There are six types of membership:

1. founding members

2. Ordinary members

3. Corporate members

4. honorary members

5. Student members

6. Support members

Article 11 Ordinary and Student members

If it is not otherwise mentioned, the term (members) shall mean only the founding members, the ordinary members and the student members.

Article 12 General Definition

Ordinary members

They are those individuals who have shown interest in participating in the activities related to protection of environment and preserving of natural resources. Those members shall operate according to and be guided by the Royal decree # 14\2000 (Civil society Regulations), the constitution and internal rules ans regulations of the Society. Each member of the Society has the following duties:


a. To take part in all the activities of the society according to their own capability.

b. To be of good moral character and shall posses desirable qualities.

c. To encourage and promote various activities of the society.

d. To Persuade and inspire other individuals and establishment to join the Society.

e. To be committed not to abuse the name of the Society for personal gains.

f. To respect the resolutions and decisions made by the Society’s Executive Board.

g. To be keen on voluntarily participating positively in the activities of the society.

h. To pay the annual membership fees.

Members can be elected for the Executive Board six months after the date of becoming members of the Society.

Corporate members

Corporations willing to demonstrate and uphold the goals of the Society and promote its activities in preserving nature and protecting natural resources are eligible to hold (corporate membership) in the Society. A corporate member shall appoint a representative to attend all the society’s meeting on its behalf, but such appointee shall not have the right to vote or nominate for election, however they have the right to discuss and express views.


Honorary Members

The Executive Board of the Society may select and grand honorary membership to those individuals who have rendered distinguished services in the field of environment protection and preserving Omani nature. However,these members are not eligible for voting or nominating themselves for election.


Students Members

Students currently pursuing a full-time course of study at a tertiary level can apply for membership in the Society and take part in its various activities. These members have the right to vote and nominate for election.


Support Members

The are those individuals who are not able to attend to the activities of the Society but willing to support its activities financially.


Article 13 Termination of Membership


Membership in the Society shall terminate when the member:


a. Becomes deceased.


b. Resigns in writing to the Council.


c. Loses one of membership requirements stated in articles (12) of the Society constitution.

d. Is expelled in accordance with the Society constitution.
e. Has not paid the current membership fees.

Article 14 Regaining Membership
The members who shall have lost membership due to failure to pay the annual subscription may regain it provided they pay up owing amount within the year following the termination of their membership.

Article 15 Reclaiming Membership Fees or any Donations or Gifts
Any member of the Society whether in place or expelled shall not have the right to reclaim membership fees or any donations or gifts he had paid or given to the Society.

Article 16 Members’ Duties
The Society members’ duties are:
a. To commit themselves to the constitution of the Society and abide by the internal rules and regulations therein and adhere to the resolutions of the General Assembly and the Executive Board.
b. To pay annual membership fees.
c. To do all such thing deemed necessary for the attainment of the objectives of the Society through participation in its programs and activities.
d. To promote friendly atmosphere and mutual respect among the members and colleagues.

Article 17 Members’ Rights
All members have the right to:
a. To attend the General Assembly meetings and discuss the agenda items.
b. To receive a membership card carrying his/her name, membership, registration, number, validity date and any other relevant information.
c. To receive a copy of the constitution of the Society.
d. To receive a copy of the internal rules and regulations of the Society.

e. To receive a copy of all the bulletins and publications of the Society.

f. To have access to all the records documents, correspondence of the Society upon a written request. This can happen at the specific times allotted by the Executive Board, provided that viewing such documents occurs in the premises of the Society and in the presence of the person in charge of the documentary department.

g. To participate in all activities of the Society.

h. Omani members living abroad are eligible to exercise all the rights of their membership according to their membership category with the exclusion of the right to nominate for the Executive Board.

i. To have the right to vote and nominate for election and be part of quorum.

j. To make use of their membership title whenever and wherever deemed necessary.

Chapter Four – General Assembly

The General Assembly is the supreme authority with powers to endorse and determine the politics of the Society and to undertake any measures to ensure its effective implementation on all its members and committees.

Article 18 Membership Requirements

The General Assembly shall be formed from within all the members of the Society who have paid up the subscription fees of the past year and fulfilled their obligations in accordance with the constitution and the internal regulations of the Society.

Article 19 Ordinary General Meeting of the General Assembly

The General Assembly shall conduct its ordinary general meeting every calender year during the first three months following the end of its fiscal year in the headquarters of the Society.

The Executive Board can call for the meeting in different place other than the headquarters.

Date, venue and agenda of the general meeting shall be decided by the Executive Board. The Board shall send out a notice of the general meeting at least 15 days prior to the meeting being held, this notice should include a draft agenda of the meeting. The General Assembly is not entitled to consider any other items other than stated in the agenda without obtaining approval from the majority of its present members.

Article 20 Legal Procedures of General Assembly meeting
The meeting of the General Assembly shall not be considered legal unless attended by the absolute majority of the members. In such cases, where the number of the members is not sufficient, the meeting will have to be postponed and an alternate date to convene another meeting shall be specified which shall not be earlier than 8 days and not later than 15 days from the date of the postponed meeting. The second meeting shall be legal if attended by two thirds of the members of the General Assembly. Is after the time appointed for the commencement of the meeting a quorum is not present, another date will be specified for the meeting within half an hour. The meeting shall be considered legal if attended in person by only ten percent of the members present. If there is a quorum of members, the withdrawal of less than half of the present members at the commencement of the meeting will not invalidate the resolutions passed at the meeting.

Article 21 the General Assembly Extraordinary Session
The General assembly can convene an extraordinary meeting in the following circumstances:
a. Requisition of the Executive Board.
b. Written requisition signed by not less than one third of the members eligible for attending the General Assembly meeting.
c. Requisition of the Ministry of Social Development.

The requisition for the meeting shall specify the purpose and draft agenda. The extraordinary meeting should follow th same procedures used in the ordinary meetings in respect to the date, venue and legal measures ……etc.

Article 22 Notifying the Ministry Concerned with the date of the General Assembly meeting
The Ministry of Social Development should be notified of each and all the General Assembly meetings at least fifteen days prior to the meeting date. A copy of the request of the meeting is to be sent to the Ministry along with the agenda of the meeting and related documents. The Ministry may designate representative to sit as observer at meeting. The Ministry should also receive a copy of the minutes of the meeting including all the resolutions passed within fifteen days after the meeting.

Article 23 General Assembly Resolutions
The resolutions of the General Assembly should be passed by the majority of members present at the meeting. Decisions concerning the amending of the constitution, dissolution of the Society, dismissal of Executive Board members from office, merging of the Society with another, partition of the Society or opening other branches are not considered legal unless approved by two third of the members of the General Assembly.

Article 24 Nominating other Members to Represent Members at General Assembly Meeting
Any member of the General Assembly can nominate member to represent him/her at the meeting. No members can deputize more than one member and the request of nomination should be submitted in writing. Nominated members shall have no voting rights in decisions concerning the amending of the constitution, dissolution of the Society, dismissal of Executive Board members from office, merging of the Society with another, partition of the Society or opening other branches.

Chapter Five – Society Administration
Executive Board (EB)
The Executive Board is the executive authority of the Society which implements the policies and resolutions passed by the General Assembly in order to achieve the general goals and objectives of the Society.

Article 25 Election of the Executive Board
one year following the official establishment of the Society, The General Assembly shall elect the Executive members, upon the request of the Executive Board, in accordance with the rules and regulations stipulated in the constitution, through free secret ballot and under the supervision of the Ministry of Social Development.

The term of the elected board shall be for two calendar years. A committee shall be formed to take charge of the preparation for and supervision of ballot process of the Executive Board. It will also be in charge of ensuring the integrity of the voting process and announcing the results as soon as votes counting process has been finalized under the supervision of the Ministry.

Article 26 Powers and Functions of the Executive Board

Powers and functions of the Society shall be conferred upon the Executive Board that shall consist of the 8 members elected by the General Assembly.

Article 27 Duties of the Executive Board

The day to day administration and management of the executive activities of the Society; these activities shall include, but shall not be restricted to the following:

a. Specify the venue and date of the annual meeting of the General Assembly.

b. Supervise election and filling vacant post.

c. Manage employees of the Society’s headquarters.

d. Take such steps as may be necessary of the purpose of procuring contributions to the funds of the Society in accordance with the constitution and internal regulations of the Society.

e. Select the secretaries who shall be held responsible for managing these funds.

f. Devise an annual budget that includes the channels and purposes of expenditures and the needs and means of responding to them.

g. Generally perform such managerial and administrative duties as may be necessary to fulfill the overall aim and objectives of the Society.

h. Look into and investigate and take necessary actions to resolve the disputes received from the members and establishments.

i. The Executive Board shall be the only authority that is entitled to correspond and communicate with other associations outside Oman.

Article 28 Meeting Dates of the Executive Board

The Executive Board shall hold a minimum of meeting every two months in a date and venue specified by the Board chairperson or whoever is deputized to do so.

Article 29 Members of the Executive Board

Executive Board members should:

a. Enjoy all his/her civil rights.

b. Be an Omani national.

c. Not be from among those Executive Board members who had been found responsible for violations which led to dissolving of the Society five years prior to its dissolution.

d. Have at least six months valid membership in the Society.

Article 30 Prohibition of Holding another Membership at an Executive Board of the Society

The members of the Executive Board of the Society are not allowed to hold another Board membership in a different similar Society prior to obtaining permission from the Ministry of Social Development. Executive Board members are not allowed to hold a paid post in the Society.

Article 31 Duties of the Executive Board Members

The Executive Board shall consist of the President, the Vice President, the Executive Board Director, the Secretary, the Treasurer and three administrative officers elected in accordance with Article 25 of this constitution. The duties of the Executive Board members are:

The President:

Shall act as the Society’s legal representative with any entity outside the Society. The President shall direct the Executive Board and General Assembly and chair their meetings. She/he, along with the secretary, shall sign the meeting minutes, pay cheques, money orders, bills and financial documents. The president shall also supervise all the operations of the Society. She/he shall sign decisions of dismissal of members and shall have the authority to take decisions in urgent and emergency matters provided that the matter be discussed at the Board of Directors in the next immediate meeting.

The Vice President:

The Vice President shall perform the duties of the President in her/his absence and perform any other duties (financial, administration and technical duties) assigned by the Executive Board.

Executive Director:

The Executive Director shall perform such activities to implement all the policies and decisions passed by the Executive Board. She/he shall take charge of general administration of the headquarters and supervise the employees of the Society as decided by the Executive Board. The Executive Director shall be the person who receives all the correspondence of the Society and she/he shall keep custody of the documents and correspondence sent from and received by the Society. the Executive Director shall report to the President of the Society. She/he will assist in the operations of all the general committees as assigned by the Board to ensure that activities of the Society are carried out effectively and efficiently.

The Executive Director shall be the chief administrative officer of the Society and She/he shall be authorized to enter into any contracts on behalf of the Society.

The Secretary:

The Secretary shall make the necessary arrangement for preparing the agenda of the Executive Council and General Assembly meeting and record the minutes and get them signed by the President. She/he shall also take charge of all the clerical jobs, correspondences, files, records and contracts of the Society.

The Treasurer:

The Treasurer shall perform the duties of administrating the funds of the Society and maintaining proper financial records of its expenditures and revenues. She/he will also be responsible for depositing the funds in a bank approved by the Executive Board. She/he shall be authorized to cash any amounts approved and signed by the Treasurer and the President. She/he shall be responsible for collecting and recording the funds generated by subscription and maintain the custody of financial documents of the Society. She/he shall be also responsible to maintain the balance between revenues and expenditure in accordance with the financial by-law of the Society.

She/he shall also present a monthly report to the Executive Board indicating the current balance of revenues and expenditure. She/he will also be entitled to keep specified amount of money as petty cash in accordance with the financial by-law of the Society.

Membership Officer:

The Membership Officer shall:

Act in consultation with the President and Executive Director with regard to the creation of a positive atmosphere contributing to growth and progress of the Society. Such a positive atmosphere should enable the current members to perform their duties efficiently and effectively and inspire other skilled individuals to join the Society.

The duties of the Membership Officer shall include preparing a list of the current members of the society and attracting other individuals to become members. The success of the Society shall rely on the hard work of its members and its ability to pave the road for continually accepting new members.

The duties of the Membership Officer shall be:

a. Prepare the objectives of a plan to expand membership on the long run.

b. Form a membership committee in the Society.

c. Provide data base of the names of the new members (showing the membership category).

d. Publish materials on the benefits and importance of the Society’s services rendered to its members and to the whole society.

e. Maintain custody of name lists of all members and organize activities and launch campaigns to attract individuals to join the Society.

f. Keep the Society members informed with the most recent events and statistics of the members (the total number, the new members, …. etc).

g. Pinpoint the problematic areas related to membership and suggest ways of remedy.

h. Communicate with members who are irregular in paying their membership subscriptions and persuade those who quit the Society to rejoin.

i. Allocate a special budget for activities of the members.

j. Award Certificates of appreciation to active members and as an incentive to other.

Awareness and Information Officer:

The duties of the Awareness and Information Officer shall be:

To generally supervise and have the authority to approve, accept and disapprove materials for publication related to the Society. With the approval of the Executive Board, the Awareness and Information Officer is authorized to appoint, replace or reappoint assistants selected from volunteering members to perform the required duties. She/he shall be responsible for preparing and presenting to the Executive Board an annual report including all information and public relation activities.

Other Administrative Members:

They shall perform any duties may be assigned by the Executive Board.

Article 32 Form subcommittees Executive Board

The Executive Board has the authority to form subcommittees from the members of the Society or others.

The Board shall specify the number and duties of each committee and devise a plan for its activities. The results of studies and research conducted by each committee shall be presented to the Board for approval whatever seems appropriate.

Article 33 Executive Board monthly meetings

The Executive Board must regularly convene a monthly meeting of its members. These meetings are considered legal if attended by the majority of members (Five members) and by the President or the Vice President. The Secretary shall prepare the agenda of the meeting and present it to the Board Chairperson for approval. Following that, the Secretary must inform the members about the agenda and the date of the meeting at least a week prior the date of meeting.

The resolutions taken shall be deemed passed if they receive the affirmative vote of a simple majority of the members. In the event of an equality of voting, the motion shall be in favour the group representing the opinion of the President.

Article 34 Extraordinary Meeting

The Executive Board may convene an Extraordinary meeting upon directive of the President or a request signed by at least two third of the members to discuss urgent matters. No business other than that specified in the agenda of the meeting shall be discussed.

The Ministry of Social Development may call for a Board meeting whenever deemed necessary.

Article 35 Election of Executive Board Members

The Executive Board members shall be elected by the secret ballot in accordance with the following provisions:

Nominations for positions detailed in Article (30) shall be evoked by written application which includes 10 members from within the Society members who have valid membership. A committee shall be formed to coordinate and prepare for the process and announce the results afterwrds.

Chapter Six – Sources of Funds

Article 36 Sources of Funds

The major sources of funds of the Society shall be:

a. Membership fees.

b. Donations, gifts and wills, provided approved by the Ministry of Social Development.

c. Subsidies, aids and any other resources as may be acceptable to the Executive Board and after obtaining permission from the Ministry of Social Development.

Article 37 the Fiscal Year

The fiscal year of the Society shall start on January 1st of each year and shall expire on December 31st of the same year.

Article 38 Bank Account of the Society shall have its Official Name

Bank Account of the society shall carry its official name. The society shall stipulate having two signature appended to all financial documents, (signature of the president and the Treasurer).

Alternatively the members and officials of the Society who are eligible to have access to the financial accounts may be authorized an access.

Article 39 Opening a Bank Account at a Local Bank

The Society shall open a bank account at a local bank, through which, its shall run all financial dealing relating to the revenues and expenditures. This serves the purpose of record keeping and surveillance activities. The Treasurer shall ensure the conformity of the the account report with the monthly financial report and present a copy of the report to the President.

Article 40 Keep Custody of its Financial Records of at Least Five Successful Years
The Society shall maintain the custody of all financial records for, at least, the preceding five successive years.

Chapter Seven – Dissolution of the Society
Article 41 In the Case of Failing to Achieve its aims and objectives
The Society may be dissolved, if the Executive Board is of the view that the Society has failed to achieve its aims and objectives. The Board shall call for an Extraordinary meeting by the General Assembly to consider the dissolution of the Society. If two third of its Executive members approve the proposal of dissolution, the Ministry of Social Development shall make a decision for
dissolution. The decision shall also include an appointment of a liquidator, who shall be responsible for the auditing the capital and assets and pay off the outstanding commitments.

Article 42 dissolution of the Society and its Remaining Funds
Any remaining funds of the Society shall be passed on to registered societies specified by the Ministry of Social Development.



This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

See on-line at:

Environment Society of Oman – Aims

September 14, 2011
To help educate and to raise awareness of environmental issues.
To enable the public to become actively involved in conservation by organising participatory events.
To provide a forum for exchange of ideas and information related to the human and natural environment of Oman.
To foster co-operation between government, NGO’s and the private sector to promote conservation of Oman’s human and
natural environment.
To carry out field research of Oman’s human and natural environment in order to help provide the necessary information for
conservation initiatives.


This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

See on-line at:

Environment Society of Oman – ESO

September 14, 2011
ESO was founded in March 2004 by Omanis representing different regions and many different professional backgrounds. Membership is open
to anyone above the age of 18 who has an interest in conserving the environment and ensuring that Oman’s natural heritage remains intact for
future generations to enjoy.
“We are careless with our environment because we can be and because it is easy,
but mainly because we do not think ahead;
yet we have the capacity to think ahead.
It is our job to nurture this ability…the rest will follow.”
HH Sayyid Tarik Bin Shabib Al-Said,
Patron of the Environment Society of Oman


This piece is taken from the website of the Environment Society of Oman.

See on-line at: