Posts Tagged ‘marine environment’

Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre (MEMAC) – Activities & Programme

September 15, 2011

MEMAC Programmes in general:
        Under the Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency, MEMAC is working closely with its Member States. This work can be briefed as follows: 

–  Revising National Contingency Planning and providing experts and observers during the course of revision and exercise.
–  Revising laws, regulations and different Conventions related to marine pollution.   
–  Providing information with regard to technology, researches, methods and techniques in relation with combating or related matters. Besides, MEMAC has issued a list of Experts and Companies available regionally and worldwide and working in the field for emergency. MEMAC also reports all the incidents in the Region and follows up activities such as cleaning, etc.

MEMAC Programmes:
        MEMAC in co-operation with Member States monitoring and studying frequently each and every incident caused a pollution or likelihood to the marine environment.  The study will include all aspects wither technical or legal.  Accordingly, the Programme will be assigned by the ROPME Council.

Following is a brief reflecting the Programme activities which assigned by the ROPME Council and executed or in progress by MEMAC.

 

The Regional and National Contingency Plans:
        As the Regional and National Contingency Plans are the main elements of the objectives and functions of MEMAC, a main framework for the Regional Contingency Plan was established few years ago.  This plan was under frequent annual revision by the Region Response Officers to fulfill its main elements.

        Further, MEMAC continuously followed up the National Contingency Plan for each Member State through the Oil Spill Response Officers in the Region, providing them with technical assistance in order to achieve the compatibility with the Regional Contingency Plan and frequent Regional drill exercise conducted biennially.

 

Damage Assessment Guidelines:
        ROPME Sea Area is a virtual marine paradise where a great variety of marine creatures exist. The shore lines and the sea waters in the region form a unique ecosystem in which fish, birds, mammals, and many different types of plants interact for their existence. Besides, there are the oil and gas resources.  All of these form productive resources for the human and for the marine environment. Thus the region with its natural resources is considered one of the richest regions in the world. Such type of nature needs a great effort of assessment of damages followed by any oil spill incidents for reinstatement and rehabilitation. A Damage Assessment Guidelines was processed and published after a lengthy study by Regional and International experts who carried it out to cover this important issue. The Guidelines covers all the resources such as the Coral Reefs, Sands, Mangroves, Birds, Turtles, Breading and Nursery areas as well as Industrial areas and Tourism areas, which all are given in brief with method of reinstatement.

 

OPRC 1990:

The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, 1990 (OPRC 90)

        Recognizing the importance of OPRC in facilitating international cooperation in preparing for and responding to major oil spill incidents and with a view of enhancing the regional capabilities in addressing marine emergencies effectively to minimize environmental damage and to save human life,  it is no doubt that an international instrument will be in need to work along with the Regional Kuwait Convention to preserve these resources. MEMAC invited all the Member States experts, on the 29th and 30th March 2005, to discuss the OPRC Convention and the Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to Pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 2000 (OPRC-HNS Protocol). The meeting was also attended by the  representatives of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), where a verification for the existing oil spill combating system and the readiness in the region were verified.  

The meeting concluded that all Member States had already met all the obligations of the Convention and it would be of great benefit to have accessions to the OPRC Convention. The recommendations were forwarded to the Member States for further process, where I. R. Iran is already a party to the Convention and the Sultanate of Oman is on final stage of ratifying while the  other States are in different levels of process as it has been  reported.

 

Search and Rescue:
        For several years MEMAC has dealt with this subject based in humanitarian aspects, where in some occasions the rescue was associated with the oil spill incidents and many lives were salvaged. But the mandate of MEMAC is different and it is purely to deal with oil spills. For this reason a meeting for the Member States’ experts and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) representatives was convened in the Kingdom of Bahrain on the 19th and 20th November 2005 to study this matter. The meeting recognized that all ROPME Member States have their fairly adequate existing plans for maritime search and rescue services and they need to consider the International Search and Rescue Convention. The Member States I.R. Iran, Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates are already parties to the Convention. It is strongly recommend that a regional framework to be established along with a regional organization for this subject. The meeting recommended MEMAC to take over this initiative due to its vast regional experience. The subject is left with the Member States for deep study and decision.

Trajectory Modeling:
        The modeling is one of the important tools to predict oil slicks whenever an oil spill incident occurs. The model is of great assistance for the protection strategy plans.  This has been exercised by MEMAC and the Member States. For several years MEMAC and the Member States have been using the NOAA model which was prepared by NOAA, ROPME and MEMAC for the Region. As the existing model is of a large scale and more general in covering the Region data, the Member States decided to have a more up-dated model with details as the activities and the offshore installations in the Region have increased. A project contract with BMT, as a well known experienced company in the field, was established in order to provide the Region with a model which is known as OASIS Model. This model had been handed over to all of our Member States during 2007 with on site training carried out by the BMT specialist.

The Reception Facilities and MARPOL 73/78:
         The special hydrographic and ecological characteristics of the fragile marine environment of the Region and its particular vulnerability to pollution due to high shipping traffic density, along with the coastal and offshore human activities, require a highly effective and strong approach. The Region produces over 56% of the world energy and receives over 30,000 vessels of different types transiting in a semi-close sea per annum. It is a challenge and an effective major should take place. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) has been taken seriously by ROPME Council.

A feasibility study has been carried out for about five years for establishing the Reception Facilities in the Region as a main obligation towards ratifying the MARPOL 73/78 Convention. The study has been carried out and it is still under follow-up by the Regional steering Committee as well as by each of the Member States’ National Steering Committee.

The joint Regional efforts have led the Member States to ratify the MARPOL 73/78 Convention. The early ratification of the Convention by the Sultanate of Oman and the joint efforts of the Member States during the IMO Meeting of the Marine Environment Protection Committee have assisted the Region in expanding the Special Area of the Region by about 200 nautical miles from the Omani coast towards the Arabian Sea to cover all the ROPME Sea Area.

The main target of ratifying the Convention is to declare the area as a “Special Sea Area” which means no oil or any other substances would be discharged from ships, and shipping must follow the IMO standards.

During the MEPC 56, meeting on the 9th – 13th July 2007 a Resolution adopted and a dated decided on having the Special Area status in effect as of the 1st August 2007, in according to Regulation 1.11.5 of Annex I and Regulation 5(1)(e) of Annex V of MARPOL 73/78 Convention. 

 

The Loan and Transboundary Movement ofPersonnel, Equipment, and Materials in Cases of Emergency and Technical Assistance:
        MEMAC has laid this important subject’s guidelines which have been a good reference in use by the Member States.

        Through MEMAC, a number of Regional and International experts have been designated to assess damages occurred in the marine environment and the coastal areas of the Region, as well as different types of equipment have been transported and moblized from state to state in the Region under MEMAC guidance. 

 

Oil Pollution Manual:
        As one of the main functions of MEMAC is to prepare an Oil Pollution Manual for the Region, MEMAC has offered the IMO Oil Pollution Manual Section IV for the Region’s utilization.  This is because of the active role of MEMAC and ROPME Member States in preparing the IMO manual where the regional requirements are reflected.  The specific regional information is to be published separately beside the IMO Manual.

 Besides, several manuals have been issued such as the Legal Guidelines and the Safety Guidelines.  

 

Development of Safety Programme for Harmful/Hazardous Substances:

         This Programme is dedicated mainly for chemical spills where it is divided into two parts:  the training and the tools.  The tools aims to assist and support in taking a decision during the chemical spills.  The tools include the following:

  • Comprehensive list of equipment recommended for the combating of chemical spills.
  •   A Publication listing all the possible available chemicals world wide ranking all the chemical toxicity, properties, atmospheric plum dispersion and safety emergency procedures.

This is made available also electronically by means of CD Format for prompt enquiries.

  • A well known model, such as TNO, is made available for the Member States’ use.
  • Further, a link is made to Chemical Response and it has been made available within MEMAC web site.

 

 Marine Environmental High Risk Areas (MEHRA’s):
        MEHRA’s is one of the main and highly important projects under the process by MEMAC.  A number of ROPME Member States’ Experts and Experts from ANATEC Company, which has  excellent experience in such types of projects,  met on the 12th and 13th June 2005 in Bahrain.  They launched the project after discussion and agreement of each Committee Member’s role.

 

Project Objectives:
To identify areas within the ROPME Sea which should be designated as  Marine Environmental High Risk Areas.

To establish a tool kit i.e. GIS Model, which can be updated as new information on environmental sensitivity.

 Scope of Work:
Collection of data such as shipping traffic and environmental data.
Analysis of accident data.
Risk Assessment.
Identification of Marine Environmental High Risk Areas.
Software Implementation and training the trainers.

 The main issues tackled by MEHRA’s will be as follows:

  • §  Understanding of the risk of marine pollution to sea areas and coastlines in the Region and identifying areas of highest risk.
  • §  Development of a database of shipping movements, which can be utilized to assess the risks. or impacts associated with future offshore developments taking place in the region.
  • §  Development of a GIS system on all coastal environmental sensitivity areas, which can be used to keep information up-to-date for future environmental impact assessment being carried out in the region.
  • §  Identification of areas of highest environmental sensitivity.
  • §  Identification of Marine Environmental High Risk Areas for the region based on pollution risk and environmental sensitivity.
  • §  Use of the system to identify areas where pollution response and traffic management measures require to be focused.
  • §  The system can be used for any of the Member States in the region, applying to IMO for a Particularly Sensitive Area (PSSA).

Port State Control (PSC):
        During the period of the years 1996 – 2002, the Region witnessed a number of oil pollution incidents resulted from serious forms of coastal vessels casualties.  As a normal procedure, accident investigation and analysis, the importance of the PSC was concluded.  MEMAC took the initiative and convened a regional meeting in co-operation with IMO and with the attendance of GCC Secretariat along with the Member States’ concerned Ministries and Experts, where the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) of the Port State Control for ROPME Region was laid – The MOU was ratified by all Member States in May 2003.  As the MOU falls within the specialty of Ministries and Port Authorities, the matter is left with the GCC Secretariat in order to form the Information Centre which has been decided to be in Muscat-Sultanate of Oman.  MEMAC will keep its commitments towards the execution of and co-operation in this matter.

MEMAC Database:
        A tremendous amount of information is collected for the database, which is divided into Regional Oil Spill Equipment manufactures and companies working in the field and environmental experts and institutions, and there is  still much more to come.

A special form is made available for companies, experts and institutions for registration within ROPME Region’s Data-base aiming to make all these services available for the Member States’ utilization to protect the marine environment.

 Note: To join the Data Base, the Registration Form is available within        the site 

 Survey of Wrecks:
        A Task Force was established with the participation of I.R. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UNEP, UN Representatives, IAEA, CEDRE, ROPME/MEMAC and UNDP which took the lead afterwards.  Several meetings took place in ROPME Headquarters for this Task. 

The Task Force supervised, co-operated and executed a survey for covering  42 wrecks starting from North Bubian Is. up to UM-Al-Qasser and Khor Al-Zubair.  The main concern was the polluting content of the wrecks, where over 150 samples were taken for analysis and wrecks location were surveyed for safe vessels’ traffic passage.

 

Master Plan:
This project started at 2007, where the “Master Plan” shall address the future planning of how the region shall be fitted out with pollution and navigational hazards prevention and control capabilities, based on the future trade volumes and the possible hazards to the environment.

Once this “Master Plan” is drawn and approved it will constitute a very essential tool on how to coordinate present and future activities, the “Master Plan” shall enable ROPME to avoid duplications in spending on facilities such as pollution control and navigations safety centers, the implementation of this “Master Plan” can be self financing through proper management of compensations and retrieval of pollution control cost.        

The preparation of the Master Plan may be accomplished in three main phases:

Phase 1:   Implementation of MARPOL 73/78.
Phase 2:   Pollution Control (Legal and Technical).
Phase 3:   Safety of Navigation.

 

The Task:

  1. The Task set out in the MEMAC scope of work and terms of reference is to develop a Master Plan which will enable the MEMAC to fulfill its responsibilities of over sighting and coordinating the safe operation of shipping and the protection of the marine environment including the combat of marine pollution in the ROPME Sea Area over the next 10-15 year period.
  1. In order to develop the Master Plan, the consultants will review and make recommendations on the following matters in ROPME Sea Area countries and major ports
  • review the current situation with regard to the flag State’s accession, implementation and enforcement of  the IMO mandatory conventions and the additional  coastal State conventions,
  • review the port Sate control regime in each country and its coordination across the region
  • review vessel traffic services, ship routing, vessel reporting systems and the extent of integration to provide safe navigation of shipping through the region
  • review current shipping traffic in the ROPME Sea Area and provide an estimation of future levels of shipping in the region
  • review the extent of regional implementation of electronic charting
  • review  the current shipping incident investigation system
  • review the adequacy of the existing visual and electronic navigational aids
  • identify potential navigation hazards
  • identify appropriate regional cooperation in managing maritime operational issue
  • review existing and potential funding mechanisms for the provision of maritime safety, navigational safety services and pollution response in each country and from a regional perspective
  • review progress in establishing ship port waste reception facilities
  • review oil and chemical pollution response arrangements in each country as well as the regional approach to pollution response, including levels of response equipment, contingency plans, training and the availability of trained personnel in pollution response with the view to establishing a ‘state of the art’ pollution response system
  • review regional ship emergency response and communications arrangements including  designation of a place of refuge in an marine emergency and the need for maritime assistance services
  • review funding mechanisms for pollution response including provision and operation of pollution response centers by the private sector,
  • review the availability of compensation for pollution response and damage by the various international pollution compensation regimes.
  • review existing  and required legislation for all the above activities
  • identify the most appropriate regional approach to all above matters, with a view to ensuring the most effective coordination of maritime safety and marine environment protection services, avoiding the risk of costly duplication
  • the Master Plan shall include a continual review mechanism
  1.  In the review of the above listed matters the Consultants will use and take note of relevant IMO Conventions, IMO Assembly Resolutions and MSC/MEPC resolutions including but not limited to the following:
  • A 973 (24) Code for the Implementation of Mandatory IMO Instruments
  • A974 (24)  Framework & Procedures for Voluntary IMO Audit Scheme
  • A 881 (21) Self -assessment of flag State performance
  • A 847 (20) Guidelines to assist flag States in implementation of IMO instruments
  • Resolution MEPC. 83 (44) on Guidelines for ensuring the adequacy of port waste reception facilities.

The Oil Spill Response Officers (OSRO):
      The Oil Spill Response Officers in the Region have frequent annual meetings, or whenever it is deemed necessary, and as it is assigned to them by Their Excellencies the Ministers of the Environment.  In these meetings they discuss each National Contingency Plan, presenting all the obstacles and updating all the main elements of the National Contingency Plans.

During their meetings they discuss and review several important regional issues executed by MEMAC such as:

  • Revising all the main elements of the Regional and National Contingency Plans, precautions and the Regional preparedness
  • Providing technical assistance to some Member States in order to update their National Contingency Plans
  • Ratifying the Oil Preparedness Convention, OPRC 1990
  • Regional Arrangements for Search and Rescue
  • Preparing and collecting oil finger printings.

Regional and International Events:
MEMAC has always sought the Regional and International cooperation which has been reflected in different activities aiming to protect the Region’s marine environment. These activities have reflected in MEMAC’s participation in IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) regular meeting. It also participated in the IMO working group in order to reflect the Region’s concern to the new International instruments. This includes the updating of the training courses and manuals, beside the support of the Member States’ representatives during the MEPC meetings where continuous meetings and exchanging of views among the representatives take place.

Further, MEMAC participated in those important events held Internationally and Regionally, highlighting MEMAC’s activities, expressing its concern towards the protection of the marine environment and exchanging views with other experts.

A close co-operation with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) always stands there as a close partner for the protection of the ROPME Sea Area. This is reflected in different projects and training courses

 

This piece is taken from the website of the Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre.

See on-line at: http://www.memac-rsa.org/4.html 

 

 

 

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Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre (MEMAC) – How MEMAC Deals with Incidents?

September 15, 2011

Upon receiving notification of an oil spill incident from any source, the following steps are taken immediately:

  • Verification of the incident.
  • Collect complete data about the incident.
  • Notifying and transmission of all data to all Member States.
  • Notifying local, regional and international private sectors working in the field of combating marine pollution to be on standby in case of necessity
  • Continuous exchange of incident data and follow-up.
  • Updated information about the incident status is continuously provided to all Member States
  • Legal and technical advice is continuously provided to the Member States
  • Oil Spill Trajectory Model is used for early prediction
  • In case of any assistance in needed, MEMAC liaises with the Member States as well as with other regional and international firms.
  • A record about the incident is kept for studying and as a lesson to be learnt for future avoidance of any similar incident.

 

This piece is taken from the website of the Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre .

See on-line at: http://www.memac-rsa.org/3.html

Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre (MEMAC) – About MEMAC

September 15, 2011

Established on 4th August 1982 at Manama, Bahrain, within the framework of Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution together with the Protocol concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil & other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency which were signed on 24th April 1978 at Kuwait.

Member States:
1- Kingdom of Bahrain
2- Islamic Republic of Iran
3- Republic of Iraq
4- State of Kuwait
5- Sultanate of Oman
6- State of Qatar
7- Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
8- United Arab Emirates

Objectives (Article III)
a)   to strengthen the capacities of the Contracting States and to facilitate co-operation among them in order to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances in cases of marine emergencies;

b)   to assist Contracting States, which so request in the development of their own national capabilities to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances and co-ordinate and facilitate information exchange, technological co-operation and training;

c)  a later objective,  namely the possibility of initiating operations to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances at the regional level, may be considered. This possibility should be submitted for approval by the Council after evaluating the results achieved in the fulfillment of the previous objectives and in the light of financial resources which could be made available for this purpose.

Functions (Article III)
a)  To collect and disseminate to the Contracting States information concerning matters covered by this Protocol, including:

  ( i) laws, regulations and information concerning appropriate authorities of the Contracting States and marine emergency contingency plans referred to in Article V of this Protocol ;

(ii) information concerning methods, techniques and research relating to marine emergency response referred to in Article VI of this Protocol; and

  (iii) list of experts, equipment and materials available for marine emergency responses by the Contracting States ;

b) to assist the Contracting States, as requested :

(i) in the preparation of laws and regulations concerning matters covered by the Protocol and in the establishment of appropriate authorities ;

(ii) in the preparation of marine emergency contingency plans ;

(iii) in the establishment of procedures under which personnel, equipment and materials involved in marine emergency responses may be expeditiously transported into, out of and through their respective countries;

(iv) in the transmission of reports concerning marine emergencies; and

(v) in promoting and developing training programs for combating pollution .

c) to co-ordinate training programs for combating pollution and prepare comprehensive anti – pollution manuals;

d) to develop and maintain a communication/information system appropriate to the needs of the Contracting States and the Centre for the prompt exchange of information concerning marine emergencies required by this Protocol;

e) to prepare inventories of the available personnel, material, vessels, aircraft and other specialised equipment for marine emergency response;

f) to establish and maintain liaison with competent regional and international organisations, particularly the International  Maritime Organisation of the United Nations, for the purposes of obtaining and exchanging scientific and technological information and data, particularly in regard of any new innovation which may assist the Centre in the performance of its functions ;

g) to prepare periodic reports on marine emergencies for submission to the Council; and

h) to perform any other functions assigned to it either by this Protocol or by the Council

 

This piece is taken from the website of the Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre.

See on-line at: http://www.memac-rsa.org/1.html

ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait – Environmental Awareness

May 18, 2010

ROPME Secretariat initiated several environmental awareness programmes since 1984, such as:

ENVIRONMENT DAY OF THE REGION (24 April) 1999-2002

The Ministerial Council of ROPME at its Second Meeting in November 1982 adopted a resolution that 24 April be observed, annually, as the Environment Day of the Region with a view to commemorate the event of signing the Kuwait Regional Convention on 24 April 1978, as well as to increase the public awareness and to renew the importance of protecting the environment in general and the marine environment of the Region in particular.

Starting from 1984, the Environment Day of the Region is celebrated on 24 April every year through activities and programmes, such as drawing and photography competition; exhibition of drawings and photographs on environment; distribution of prizes; distribution of visual materials such as posters, environmental slogans, calendars, stickers, publishing of books, children’s illustrative magazines, special bulletins etc.

More details:
On the occasion of the Environment Day of the Region, every year a message from the Executive Secretary of ROPME is delivered and circulated to all NFPs to be broadcasted on 24 April.
A drawing contest has been organized for school children in each year and entries were received from Member States. Three winners from each Member State were awarded with prizes at the National level, and the best three drawings were selected at the Regional level. For instance, the number of entries were received as follows:

1999: 115 entries from five Member States
2000: 600 entries from six Member States
2001: 250 entries from seven Member States
2002: 106 entries from seven Member States

A drawing competition is organized each year in cooperation with Environmental Public Authority (EPA) Kuwait, to celebrate the occasion. Different activities on the theme of the year were carried out each year and the celebration was held under the patronage of H.E. the First Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs in the State of Kuwait.
An essay competition for secondary school children is organized annually and three winners from each Member State are awarded with prizes.
A story competition for children is held annually and stories are received from Member States. Three winners from each Member State are awarded with prizes annually.
The winning Drawings, Articles and Stories are displayed at the Exhibition during the celebration of the Environment Day of the Region.
Some promotional items such as ball pen, caps, T-shirts, with ROPME imprint were distributed on the occasion of Silver Jubilee of the Kuwait Regional Convention.
Activities related to the celebration of the Environment Day of the Region – 2003 were cancelled due to the special circumstances in the Region.

ENVIRONMENTAL EXHIBITIONS
Three Environmental Exhibitions were organized each in 1998, 2000 and 2002 under the patronage of H.E. the First Deputy Premier, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Chairman of Higher Environment Council of the EPA, Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, on the occasion of the Environment Day of the Region to commemorate the Signing of the Kuwait Regional Convention 1978. The Kuwait International Fair arranged the last two Exhibitions for ROPME in cooperation with EPA-Kuwait. The theme of the April 2000 Exhibition was “Save Our Marine Environment” and that of April 2002 Exhibition was “Waste Recycling”.

ROPME ANNUAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRIZE

In April 1984, the Council of ROPME at its Third Meeting decided that a prize be awarded annually, on the Environment Day of the Region, to selected national(s) of the Member State(s) (e.g. scientists, journalist, institutions, editors, etc.) who have contributed outstanding work or had achievements in the field of marine environment. The Prize was established in order to promote all forms of activities and to increase environmental awareness amongst the people of the Region, as well as to evolve interest amongst the people of the Region, towards protection and development of the marine environment in particular in conformity with the principles embodied in the Kuwait Regional Convention and its Protocols.

For the purpose of evaluating the credentials of the candidates for the Prize from the Member States, the Council approved the establishment of a five-member Jury who are specialists in environmental education and awareness, and that their findings should be submitted to the Executive Secretary of ROPME for approval. Since the establishment of the Annual Environmental Prize the following winners have been awarded with ROPME Prize:

1986 Capt. Ahmed Bin Said Bin Ahmed Al-Busaidi – Sultanate of Oman
Water Resources & Environmental DivisionResearch Institute of the University of Petroleum and Minerals – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1987 Engineer Ahmed Mohammed Al Subaie – State of Qatar
Kuwait Environmental Protection Society – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1988 The Royal Commission for Jubail & Yanbu – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Environment Protection Council – State of Kuwait

1989 Iranian Offshore Oil Company Islamic Republic of Iran
Marine Science Centre, Basrah University – Republic of Iraq

1993 Environment Protection Department – State of Kuwait

1994 Department of the Environment – Islamic Republic of Iran

1996 Dr. Ibrahim A.H. Alam Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR – State of Kuwait

1998 Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (QGPC – State of Qatar
Certificate of Appreciation given:Ras Laffan Industrial City – State of Qatar
Department of Environment – Islamic Republic of Iran

JURY FOR ROPME ANNUAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRIZE
In order to implement the decision of the ROPME Council, taken at its Second Meeting in November 1982, to award an Annual Environmental Prize, the Council approved in 1984 the appointment of a five-member Jury to evaluate the credentials of the candidates nominated for the ROPME Annual Environmental Prize. The term of the Jury would be for three years. Four members shall be from ROPME Member States and one from outside the Region. All the five members will be selected by the Executive Secretary in individual capacity as environmentalists of good knowledge, experience and reputation.

GENERAL RULES GOVERNING THE ROPME ANNUAL ENVIRONMENTAL PRIZE
1. AIM
The aim of the ROPME Environmental Prize is to promote all forms of activities designed to construct a desired atmosphere for Conservation, Protection, Enhancement and Understanding of the Marine Environment of the Region, as embodied in the “Kuwait Regional Convention for Cooperation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution” and its Protocols.

2. PRIZE

a) The Prize shall not be divided, save in exceptional circumstances, and shall be awarded to an individual, a group of individuals or an institution for outstanding contribution and achievement in conservation, protection, enhancement or understanding of the Marine Environment of the Region.

b) The Prize shall be awarded every three years.

c) The Prize shall be worth US$.20,000/-.

d) The Prize shall be awarded for an indeterminate duration. The decision to cease awarding the Prize is vested with the ROPME Council.

3. FUND

The Environmental Prize and its related activities will be financed by ROPME and voluntary contributions made by Member States, Institutions and Individuals.

4. DESIGNATION OF LAUREATES

The laureates shall be designated by the Executive Secretary of ROPME on the basis of recommendations submitted by the Jury.

5. JURY

The Jury shall consist of five members of which four would be from the Member States, and the fifth Member would be one who has attained international repute and recognition in the field of environment.

The members of the Jury shall be appointed by the Executive Secretary of ROPME for each Prize. This may be renewed for additional term(s).

6. CRITERIA FOR AWARDING OF THE PRIZE

The laureate shall not be subject to any kind of discrimination on the grounds of nationality, race, sex or age. He/she should have distinguished himself/herself through outstanding and regionally recognized activities in the fields of:

i) implementation, at regional or national level, of programmes and activities designed to strengthen environmental education by enlisting the support of public opinion;
ii) promotion of public awareness of the problems of marine pollution, through the media and other effective channels;
iii) launching of important activities contributing to prevention and control of marine environmental pollution and degradation;
iv) identification of the quality of the marine environment by undertaking basic or applied environmental research programmes; and
v) other activities carried out in accordance with the spirit of the Kuwait Regional Convention and its Protocols.

7. NOMINATION OF CANDIDATES

a) Member States of ROPME, regional intergovernmental organizations, regional non-governmental organizations, national institutions and ROPME Secretariat may nominate an individual, a group of individuals, or an institution considered to merit the distinction of this Prize by virtue of their activities.
b) The closing date for the submission of nominations shall be fixed by the Executive Secretary.

8. SELECTION OF THE LAUREATE AND DATE FOR THE AWARDING OF THE PRIZE

The Jury shall meet during the three months following the closing date for the submission of nominations to make its recommendations to the Executive Secretary concerning the selection of the laureate (s). The awarding of the Prize shall take place on the Environment Day of the Region (24 April).
A prize-giving ceremony shall be organized by the ROPME Secretariat. The addresses delivered on that occasion shall be published by ROPME.

RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE JURY FOR THE ROPME ENVIRONMENTAL PRIZE

1. MEMBERSHIP

The Jury shall consist of five personalities appointed by the Executive Secretary of ROPME on personal capacity, in accordance with Article 5 of the General Rules Governing the Prize.

2. CONVOCATION

The Executive Secretary shall convene meetings of the Jury nornmally the first week of January. The Jury meeting shall be convened when at least two qualified nominations are received.

3. VENUE OF MEETINGS
The meetings of the Jury shall normally be held at ROPME Headquarters in Kuwait.

4. MANDATE

The Jury is mandated to evaluate nominations for the ROPME Environmental Prize and to make recommendations to the Executive Secretary concerning the designation of the laureate or laureates. Exceptionally the Prize can be awarded posthumously.

5. ORGANISATION OF WORK

i) ELECTION OF OFFICERS
At the beginning of every meeting, the members of the Jury shall elect from among themselves a Chairman and a Rapporteur.

ii) QUORUM
Three members shall constitute a quorum.

iii) RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations addressed to the Executive Secretary shall be adopted by consensus. However, at the request of one member, recommendations may be put to the vote. In this case the decision shall be taken by the majority of the members of Jury present and voting. In case of an even tally, the side which includes the Chairman would merit consideration.

iv) REPORT TO THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
After each meeting, the Chairman of the Jury submits to the Executive Secretary a report on the work of the meeting prepared by the Rapporteur, within one week.

6. NOMINEE’S FILES

Prior to the meeting, the Executive Secretary shall make available to the members of the Jury a summary of the files of nominees to the ROPME Environmental Prize.

7. SECRETARIAT

The Jury shall be assisted by a member of the ROPME Secretariat who shall be assigned to that effect by the Executive Secretary.

8. CONFIDENTIALITY

All discussions and recommendations of the Jury shall be kept strictly confidential.

GUIDELINES FOR THE JURY, ROPME ENVIRONMENTAL PRIZE

Selection Criteria:

The Laureate should be selected on the basis of the following criteria:

1. Scope of the activity : The significance of the activity at the Community, National and Regional levels.
2. Specification : Specific to Environmental Public Awareness, Environmental Education, Control of Pollution, Understanding the Quality of the Environment.
3. Publications : Important publications or documents produced on the Marine Environment of the Region.
4. Experience : Length of experience/establishment (in the Region) and previous recognition.
5. Benefits : Practical utility of the task performed and future potential.Benefits of the task accomplished, (whether it was significant and/or original contribution) in the protection of Marine Environment.

Rating: Each item on the selection criteria could be given a maximum score of 10. The nominees’ accomplishments/achievements could then be rated against this score and given due weightage.

National Workshop on Environmental Awareness

The National Focal Points organized national meetings and activities to promote environmental awareness in their respective countries during 2001.

Workshop on Promoting the Environmental Awareness for Journalists (In Farsi)

The workshop on promoting the environmental awareness for journalists was hosted by NFP-I.R. Iran and held in Tehran during 16-17 October 2001. The main objectives of the workshop were to highlight the important role of journalists and mass media specialists of I.R. Iran in dissemination of environmental news and in promoting of public awareness on environmental issues of the ROPME Sea Area. Another objective of the workshop was to promote communication networking among journalists, other mass media specialists, environmental education institutes and environmental information centres to facilitate communication and prompt dissemination of information on environmental issues. Fifty participants representing mass media from Tehran and coastal provinces, as well as a number of environmental and educational experts and NGOs attended the workshop.

A brochure in Farsi on the role of ROPME and its programme activities on conservation and protection of the marine environment was prepared in 1800 copies and was widely circulated on the occasion of the EA Workshop. Each participant was awarded with a “Certificate of Participation” on the closing ceremony.

Workshop on Promoting the Environmental Awareness for Journalists (in Arabic)

NFP-Oman has confirmed to provide logistic support and host this regional workshop in Muscat.

EA Cooperation with the Arab League

ROPME has been in contact with the Arab League for cooperation on environmental awareness. To this effect, ROPME attended a meeting on Educational, Informational and Environmental Awareness Programme in the Arab World held in Cairo in late October 2000. A symposium was also held in Damascus, Syria and two experts from Member States attended the event.

This piece is taken from the website of ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait.

See on-line at: http://www.ropme.net/pages/env_aware.htm

ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait – Organizational Structure of ROPME

May 18, 2010

In accordance with Article XVI of the Convention, the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment(ROPME) consist of three organs i.e. the Council, the Secretariat and the Judicial Commission (see Organizational Chart).

Council

Council is consisted of the Contracting States’ Respresentatives at Ministerial level (Bahrain, I.R.Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates).

ROPME is governed by the Council decisions concerning the administrative affairs and implementation of programmes of the organization.

The Council holds ordinary meetings biennially and is assisted by an Executive Committee responsible for carrying out the function of the Council during the period between the Council meetings. Extraordinary meetings of the Council shall be held upon the request of at least one Contracting State, or upon the request of the Executive Secretary endorsed by at least two Contracting States.

The Chairmanship of the Council shall be given to each Contracting State in turn in alphabetical order of the names of the States in the English language.

In addition, by decisions of the First and Second Meetings of the Council (April 1981/November 1982) the Council established an Executive Committee consisting of the Council Members of Bahrain, I.R. Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia as Members and the Executive Secretary of ROPME, as the Chairman, with the objective of carrying out the functions of the Council during the period between the Council Meetings.

SECRETARIAT

ROPME Secretariat is comprised of an Executive Secretary, Co-ordinator, Officers and other necessary personnel to perform, inter alia, the following functions:

carry out the assignments under the Convention and its Protocols
convene meetings of the Council and its subsidiary bodies, legal/technical expert meetings and ad hoc working groups
transmit to Contracting States, notifications, reports and other information
consult with the Contracting States on questions relating to the Convention and its Protocols
prepare reports on matters relating to the Convention and to the administration of the Organization

JUDICIAL COMMISSION

As per the decision of the Executive Committee (March 1989), the Judicial Commission was established composed of six nationals of ROPME Member States (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates), who are highly qualified and experienced in international law and juridical matters. The Members are appointed on ad hoc basis for a period of five years. The Statutes of the Judicial Commission stated clearly the functions of the Judicial Commission as follows:

jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Contracting States, inter alia, concerning:
the interpretation or application of the Convention or any of its Protocol;
the general obligations provided for under Article III of the Convention;
the fulfillment of the obligations provided for under the Action Plan;
the measures provided for protection of marine environment and combating pollution in the Convention and its Protocols.
jurisdiction in disputes relating to the determination of civil liability and compensation for damage resulting from pollution of the marine environment.
jurisdiction to give an advisory opinion in all legal questions at the request of the Council concerning:
the interpretation of a treaty on the protection of the marine environment from pollution;
application of rules of international Law relating to prevention, abatement and combating of marine pollution;
the existence and extent of liability of any fact which, if established, would constitute a breach of an international obligation concerning the protection of marine environment;
the interpretation of rules and procedures of the Organization;
and any other matter referred to it by the Council.

This piece is taken from the website of ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait.

See on-line at: http://www.ropme.net/pages/structure.htm

ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait – Objectives

May 18, 2010

ROPME Objectives

The objective of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) is to coordinate the Member States efforts towards protection of the water quality in ROPME Sea Area and protect the environment systems as well as marine living and to abate the pollution caused by the development activities of the Member States. In addition, ROPME requested the Member States to exert their maximum efforts to protect the marine environment and prevent the reasons of pollution.
Therefore, ROPME is playing an essential role to unify the exerted efforts of the Member States towards protection of the marine environment and to follow up the procedures of each Member States.

MEMAC Objectives
In conformity with the provisions of the Protocol, the Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre (MEMAC) was established in Bahrain and started functioning in March 1983. The objectives of MEMAC are contained in Article III of the Protocol, which read as follows:
a) to strengthen the capacities of the Contracting States and to facilitate cooperation among them in order to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances in cases of marine emergencies;

b) to assist Contracting States, which so request in the development of their own national capabilities to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances and to co-ordinate and facilitate information exchange, technological co-operation and training.

c) A later objective, namely the possibility of initiating operations to combat pollution by oil and other harmful substances at the Regional level. This will be subject to approval by the Council after evaluating the results of previous objectives and in the light of financial resources which could be made available for this purpose.

Objectives Of The Kuwait Action Plan
The Action Plan, also known as the Kuwait Action Plan, is intended to meet the environmental needs and enhance the environmental capabilities of ROPME Member States (Bahrain, I.R.Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates) and is aimed primarily towards implementation by way of coordinated national and regional programmes. The Action Plan consists of four main components, i.e. Environmental Assessment, Environmental Management, Legal Component, and Institutional and Financial Arrangements. Since protection of the marine environment is considered as the first priority with a view to promotion of human health and well-being as the ultimate goal, the Kuwait Action Plan aims to achieve, inter-alia, the following:
a) assessment of the state of the environment including socio-economic development activities related to environmental quality and of the needs of the Region in order to assist Governments to cope properly with environmental problems, particularly those concerning the marine environment;

b) development of guidelines for the management of those activities which have an impact on environmental quality or on the protection and use of renewable marine resources on a sustainable basis;

c) development of legal instruments providing the legal basis for cooperative efforts to protect and develop the Region on a sustainable basis;

d) supporting measures including national and regional institutional mechanisms and structure needed for the successful implementation of the Action Plan.

Objectives Of The Kuwait Regional Convention
In addition to Article III (General Obligations), several Articles of the Convention imposed on the Contracting States the responsibilities to take all measures at national and regional levels to protect the marine environment from various sources of pollution, such as pollution from ships, pollution caused by dumping from ships and aircrafts, pollution from land-based sources, pollution resulting from exploration and exploitation of the bed of the territorial sea and its subsoil and the continental shelf, pollution from other human activities, co-operation in dealing with pollution Emergencies (Articles IV to IX).

This piece is taken from the website of ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait.

See on-line at: http://www.ropme.net/pages/objectives.htm

ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait – About Us

May 18, 2010

Background

The eight coastal States of the Region (Bahrain, I.R. Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) have been aware for a number of years of the vital necessity to coordinate a common action to protect the semi-enclosed sea surrounded by them. This great concern to protect the marine environment against pollution from various sources, prompted the State of Kuwait to propose in 1973 to the United Nations Environment Programmes (UNEP) that Kuwait is desirous of hosting an inter-governmental meeting of the States of the Region in order to develop necessary measures towards the matter. Later in 1974, the Representatives of the States of the Region, who were present at the Second Session of the UNEP Governing Council, brought to the attention of the Governing Council the interest in having UNEP associated with plans for the development of a programme to deal with environmental problems of the Region. In 1976 the UNEP Governing Council at its Fourth Session approved the action of the Government of Kuwait in proceeding with preparatory work for convening a regional conference to protect the area in question against pollution, which may give rise to an agreement entitled: “Kuwait Regional Agreement for Cooperation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution” or such other words as may be decided upon at the time of the conference.

The preparations for a Conference of the governments of the Region started a few months later with the organization of an inter-agency mission, sponsored by the United Nations Ocean Economics and Technology Office and the United Nations Environment Programme, which visited the eight States of the Region, between March-May 1976. Based on the mission findings, a preliminary Action Plan dealing with the scientific and socio-economic aspects of a comprehensive programme for the protection and development of the marine environment and coastal areas in the Region was prepared and was discussed at an interagency consultation held in Geneva from 12-13 October 1976. In addition, for the purpose of assisting the Governments of the Region in developing a draft Regional Agreement for the Protection of the marine environment against pollution, a Task Force Meeting on Legal Instruments for Marine Regions was held in Nairobi from 1-5 November 1976, at which a draft Agreement for Cooperation on the Protection of the Marine Environment against Pollution (submitted by the Government of Kuwait) was discussed, and prepared preliminary drafts of a Convention for Cooperation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution and a Protocol concerning Cooperation in Combating Pollution by Oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency. These were later circulated to the concerned government authorities, UN bodies and specialized agencies for their comments.

A consultative meeting of government-nominated experts from all States of the Region, as well as experts from UN specialized agencies, was convened in Kuwait from 6-10 December 1976 with the objective to seek the advice of experts from the eight countries of the Region and thus to reformulate the draft Action Plan aimed at the development and protection of the marine environment and coastal areas. Subsequently, a Meeting of Legal/Technical Experts from the Region as well as from UN specialized agencies was convened in Bahrain from 24-28 January 1977. At that meeting the experts reviewed the preliminary drafts of the Action Plan, the Convention and the Protocol concerning Cooperation in Combating Pollution by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in cases of Emergency, and prepared revised draft texts to be further studied by the concerned government authorities and the UN specialized agencies.

An expert meeting was convened from 13-18 June 1977 at Nairobi with the objective to review and prepare final drafts of the Action Plan, the Convention and the Protocol, in order to be presented to the Conference of the Plenipotentiaries for approval and adoption.

KUWAIT REGIONAL CONFERENCE OF 1978
A Regional Conference was convened in Kuwait between 15-23 April 1978, which was attended by the Plenipotentiaries as well as legal and technical experts from the eight States of the Region. The Conference adopted the following documents:

a) Kuwait Action Plan for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Areas.

b) Kuwait Regional Convention for Cooperation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution.

c) Protocol concerning Regional Cooperation in Combating Pollution by oil and other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency.

This piece is taken from the website of ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait.

See on-line at: http://www.ropme.net/pages/aboutus.htm

ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait – Regional Legal Instruments

May 18, 2010

With a view of strengthening governance in the Region. ROPME has developed protocols addressing the critical areas of environmental management. The Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution (1978) has related protocols that were developed in accordance with the recommendations of the Legal Component of the Kuwait Action Plan. These protocols included:

Protocol concerning Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency (1978)
Protocol concerning Marine Pollution resulting from Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf (1989)
Protocol for the Protection of the Marine Environment against Pollution from Land-Based Sources (1990)
Protocol on the Control of Marine Transboundary Movements and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes (1998)
Protocol concerning the conservation of biological diversity and the establishment of protected areas.

KUWAIT REGIONAL CONVENTION FOR CO-OPERATION ON THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT FROM POLLUTION

The Convention is the basic legal instrument binding the eight States of the Region to coordinate their activities towards protection of their common marine environment. The Convention consists of thirty Articles broadly dealing with responsibilities of the Contracting States for the protection and preservation of the marine environment which is under constant threat of pollution from offshore and land-based activities as well as marine transport. The Convention was adopted with the objective to ensure that development projects and other human activities do not in any way cause damage to the marine environment, jeopardize its living resources or create hazards to human health. Another objective of the Convention was the development of an integrated management approach to the use of the marine environment and the coastal areas in a sustainable way which will allow the achievement of environmental and developmental goals in a harmonious manner. To this effect, the importance of cooperation and coordination of action on a regional basis with the aim of protecting the marine environment and the coastal areas for the benefit of present and future generations, is emphasized throughout the Convention. The Convention which was signed on 24 April 1978, entered into force on l July 1979 and enjoys the participation of eight Parties. No Signatories without ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

The Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME), as defined in Article XVI of the Convention, was established on 1 July 1979 to implement the Kuwait Action Plan, as well as the Kuwait Regional Convention and its Protocols. Subsequently, based on the arrangements adopted at the Conference of Plenipotentiaries, a UNEP Interim Secretariat administered the programmes and activities of the Organization until the establishment of the ROPME Secretariat in Kuwait on 1 January 1982.

The Convention shall apply to the sea area in the Region bounded in the south by the following rhumb lines: from Ras Dharbat Ali in (160 39 / N, 530 3 / 30//E) then to a position in (160 00/ N, 530 25/E) then to a position in (170 00/ N, 560 30/E) then to a position in (200 30/ N, 600 00/E) then to Ras Al Fasteh (250 04 / N, 610 25 / E), referred to as the “Sea Area”. The Sea Area shall not include internal waters of the Contracting States unless it is otherwise stated in the Convention or in any of its Protocols. That part of the Sea Area located north-west of the rhumb-line between Ras Al Hadd (22030 / N, 59048 / E) and Ras Al Fasteh (25004 / N, 61025 / E) is designated by MARPOL 73/78 as a “Special Area”.

ROPME PROTOCOLS

ROPME Protocols have been developed in accordance with the recommendations of the Legal Component of the KAP. These Protocols have made the mandate of the Kuwait Regional Convention more specific and have had an important role in harmonizing the policies of Contracting States concerning protection of the environment under the national jurisdiction of each State and that of the Region. Meetings of regional/international experts are convened regularly to examine the status of implementation of various programmes in order to ensure that the provisions of the Protocols are complied with.

PROTOCOL CONCERNING REGIONAL COOPERATION IN COMBATING POLLUTION BY OIL AND OTHER HARMFUL SUBSTANCES IN CASES OF EMERGENCY, 1978

The objective of the Protocol, which was signed on 24 April 1978 and entered into force on 1 July 1979, is to provide cooperative and effective preventive and response measures to deal with marine emergencies caused by oil and other harmful substances. Marine emergency means any casualty, incident, occurrence or situation, however caused, resulting in substantial pollution or imminent threat of substantial pollution to the marine environment by oil or other harmful substances and includes, inter alia, collisions, strandings and other incidents involving ships, including tankers, blow-outs arising from petroleum drilling and production activities, and the presence of oil or other harmful substances arising from the failure of industrial installations. The Protocol with 13 Articles and an Appendix on guidelines for reporting marine emergencies has the same status of participation as the Convention.

PROTOCOL CONCERNING MARINE POLLUTION RESULTING FROM EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF THE CONTINENTAL SHELF, 1989

The objective of the Protocol is to coordinate regional activities towards protection of the marine environment against pollution from exploration and exploitation of oil and gas in the continental shelf. The Protocol with fifteen articles and four Guidelines is a broad framework for developing comprehensive action plans delineating the obligations of Contracting States at the national and regional levels for sound environmental practices in offshore exploration and production (E & P) activities. The Protocol has the same status of participation as the Convention.

The Kuwait Regional Convention at Article VII stipulates that the Contracting States shall take all appropriate measures to prevent, abate and combat pollution in the Sea Area resulting from exploration and exploitation of the bed of the territorial sea and its sub-soil and the continental shelf. To this effect, the Protocol was concluded, signed on 29 March 1989, and entered into force on 17 February 1990. Later, the following Guidelines to the Protocol were adopted by the Seventh Meeting of ROPME Council on 21 February 1990:

i. Guidelines on requirements for environmental impact surveys and assessments.

ii. Guidelines on the use and storage of chemicals in offshore operations.

iii. Guidelines on the conduct of seismic operations.

iv. Guidelines on disposal of drill cuttings on the sea-bed,

These Guidelines are to assist Contracting States in developing their specific plans and measures in compliance with the provisions of the Protocol. Also, the application of common standards, criteria and regulations, as well as the harmonization of environmental policies, programmes, administration and legislation of Contracting States for the fulfillment of their obligations under the Protocol, are major objectives to be achieved in the near future.

PROTOCOL FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AGAINST POLLUTION FROM LAND-BASED SOURCES, 1990

The Kuwait Regional Convention at Article VI stipulates that the Contracting States shall take all appropriate measures to prevent, abate and combat pollution by discharges from land reaching the Sea Area whether water-borne, air-borne, or directly from the coast including outfalls and pipelines. Also, the development and adoption of a protocol on pollution resulting from land-based sources has been recommended under the Legal Component of KAP. To this effect, the Protocol with 16 Articles and 3 Annexes was finalized in 1989, signed on 21 February 1990 and entered into force on 2 January 1993.

Annex III to the Protocol addresses regional guidelines, regulations and permits for the release of wastes. Accordingly, regional regulations for the waste discharge and/or degree of treatment should be specific for each kind of source and, if necessary, may be different between existing and new sources.

Regional regulations along with the programmes, measures and the timetables required for the implementation should be developed on a priority basis, inter alia, for the following types of wastes:

Ballast water, slops, bilges and other oily water discharges generated by land-based reception facilities and ports through loading and repair operations.
Brine water and mud discharges from oil and gas drilling and extraction activities from land-based sources.
Oily and toxic sludges from crude oil and refined products storage facilities.
Effluents and emissions from petroleum refineries
Effluents and emissions from petrochemical and fertilizer plants
Toxic effluents and emissions from industries such as chlor-alkali, primary aluminium production, pesticides, insecticides, and lead recovery plants.
Emissions from natural gas flaring and desulfurization plants.
Dust emissions from major industrial sources, such as cement, lime, asphalt and concrete plants.
Effluents and emissions from power and desalination plants.
Wastes generated from coastal development activities which may have a significant impact on the Marine Environment.
Sewage and solid wastes
PROTOCOL ON THE CONTROL OF MARINE TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTS AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS WASTES AND OTHER WASTES, 1998

The main objectives of the Protocol are to protect the marine environment of the Protocol Area from detrimental effects of hazardous wastes and other wastes, to assist Contracting States in environmentally sound management of wastes they generate and to enhance cooperation and coordination of action on a regional basis with the aim of controlling the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and other wastes. To this effect, the transboundary movements of wastes, the dumping of wastes at sea, the ballast water of oil tankers and the wastes of commercial ships are covered by the Protocol.

The promotion of regional cooperation for the establishment and management of reception facilities for the reception and treatment of ballast water and other wastes from ships and for the development of an effective monitoring and surveillance system to detect and control dumping of wastes at sea, are fully addressed in the Protocol.

The Protocol with 16 Articles was signed by six ROPME Member States during the Meeting of the Plenipotentiaries held in Tehran, I.R.Iran on 17 March 1998.

PROTOCOL CONCERNING THE CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS

This piece is taken from the website of ROPME: Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment – Kuwait.

See on-line at: http://www.ropme.net/pages/legal.htm